Geo-History Class Work Vanessa Atzeni & Ilaria Marras

Vegetation zones of the world

Scientists divide the Earth’s land into what are called vegetation regions. These areas have distinct types of plants, soil, and weather patterns. Vegetation regions can be divided into five major types: forest, grassland, tundra, desert, and ice sheet.

  • Forests are areas with trees grouped in a way so their leaves, shade the ground. Forests can be found just about anywhere trees can grow from below sea level to high in the mountains.
  • Deserts have almost no precipitation, or rainfall. They usually have really high daytime temperatures, low nighttime temperatures, and very low humidity.
  • Tundra is an area where tree growth is difficult because of cold temperatures and short seasons. Vegetation in tundra is limited to a few shrubs, grasses, and mosses.
  • Ice Sheets is a large stretch of glacier ice that covers the land all around it and there's not any vegetation. The only ice sheets are in Antarctica and Greenland.

What foods were gathered in pre-history

About a million years ago humans discovered how to use fire to cook food. This enabled them to eat a wider range of food. The diet would have been varied. It would have consisted of meat, fish, shellfish, leafy vegetables, fruit, nuts and insects in varying proportions. Food had to be eaten quickly before it went bad because once a kill had been made, all the meat had to be eaten immediately, as there was no means of storing it.

Preservation of food in pre-history

To survive, our early ancestors had to find a way to make that food last through the lean times. In frozen climates, they froze meat on the ice; Freezing was an obvious preservation method in the appropriate climates. Any geographic area that had freezing temperatures for even part of a year made use of the temperature to preserve food, that was used to prolong storage times. Cellars, caves and cool streams were put to good use for that purpose.

Anthropological differences between Neanderthals and Cro-Magnon

  • Neanderthals were discovered in 1856. They existed between 100,000 and 200,000 years ago in the early Paleolithic, and they used rocks, bones and they used fire. Neanderthals were more muscular than the Homo sapiens, and their skulls were flatter, with broad noses and also capable to speak.
  • Cro-Magnon is a common name that has been used to describe the first early modern humans that lived in the European Paleolithic. They were robustly built and powerful. The body was generally heavy and solid with a strong musculature. The forehead was fairly straight rather than Neanderthals. The face was short and wide and the chin was prominent.

How to make fire using wood, flint and tinder

As indicated by the name, you need these items to start this type of fire: flint and a piece of steel. With some searching, you can find an appropriate piece of flint. These stones have a smooth, glassy appearance. Stones that are easy to grasp in one hand are the ideal size. Smaller stones, which you can hold with your fingers, will also work, but they may be more difficult to use. You can strike a flint rock against another stone or other hard object to create sharp edges, which will enhance your ability to make good sparks with the stone.

  • Kneel on the ground, place a tinder bundle in front of you, and crouch over the bundle.
  • Hold the steel in one hand between your thumb and index finger.
  • Grasp the flint in the opposite hand with the sharpest edge toward the steel.
  • To generate sparks, strike the steel against the sharp edge of the rock with a quick downward motion. Use deliberate, powerful strokes, directing the sparks toward the tinder bundle.
  • When you see a spark fall into the tinder, immediately give a light puff of air onto the tinder bundle. Alternatively, if you catch a good spark on the charred cloth under your thumb, quickly transfer it to the tinder bundle and blow it into flame.

Flint-knapping – weapons and tools

Flint knapping is the age-old art of making arrowheads and other edged stone tools. Hunter-gatherers relied upon this key wilderness survival skill to create important tools and hunting implements. At its most basic level, flint knapping consists of: breaking open a piece of stone; striking flakes off of the stone and then shaping those flakes into the intended tool. The best stones for making arrowheads include obsidian, quartzite ecc... and other stones that are somewhat brittle and have a fine-grained, uniform texture that is free of cracks, fissures, and fractures.

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