BUS Re-Charter Fails-Alexander Hamilton, the first Secretary of the Treasury, devised a plan to create a national bank that would issue paper money, provide a safe place for public funds, offer banking facilities for commercial transactions. Many people opposed the idea, for they believed that a national bank was unconstitutional and would place too much power in the hands of the federal government. Despite the opposition, Hamilton proceeded with his idea, and Congress created the Bank of the United States, often called the First Bank. The First Bank was the nation's first attempt at central banking. It opened in 1791 and closed in 1811, when Congress failed to renew its charter.
Battle of Tippecanoe-Battle in which Native Americans united by Tecumseh and Prophet fought against General William Henry Harrison's forces and lost.
Cumberland Road (National Highway)-Another name for the national road for which construction began in 1811 that stretched from a town in western Maryland to Vandalia, Illinois.
War of 1812-A war between the U.S. and Great Britain caused by American anger towards the British for the impressment of American sailors, British seizure of American ships, and British aid to the Indians whom were attacking the Americans. The war involved several land and sea battles.The war strengthened American nationalism and encouraged the growth of industry.
War Hawks-Western settlers who advocated war with Britain because they hoped to acquire Britain's northwest posts and because they felt the British were aiding the Indians and encouraging them to attack the Americans. The War Hawks in congress were Henry Clay and John Calhoun.
Invasion of Canada-The colonists decided that invading this country would add a 14th colony and deprive Britain of a valuable base for striking at the colonies in revolt.
Washington D.C Burns-British forces invade Washington, D.C. because they knew that Washington, Philadelphia, and Baltimore were weak and they wanted to target Washington D.C because it would supposedly cause a greater political result as an effect. The White House was burned while the president and congress fled. This is seen as revenge because the American set fire to Canadian government buildings.
Battle of Baltimore-Fought between British and American forces in the War of 1812. It was one of the turning points of the war where American forces warded off a sea invasion of Baltimore, Maryland. The battle of Fort McHenry inspired Francis Scott Key to compose the poem "The Star-Spangled Banner" which would later become the national anthem of the United States.
Hartford Convention-The Hartford Convention was a meeting of New England Federalists held in Hartford Connecticut during 1814. These Federalist opposed the War of 1812 and held the convention to discuss and seek compensation from Washington for their complaints and wrongs that the felt had been done. Many of these complaints were representing their fears of being overpowered by states in the south and west. The Hartford Convention was an example of the growing issue of Sectionalism and was another event in the upcoming end of the Federalist Party.
Battle of New Orleans-In January, 1815 A large British invasion force was repelled by Andrew Jackson's troops at New Orleans. Jackson had been given the details of the British army's battle plans by the French pirate, Jean Laffite. About 2500 British soldiers were killed or captured, while in the American army only 8 men were killed. Neither side knew that the Treaty of Ghent had ended the War of 1812 two weeks before the battle. This victory inspired American nationalism.
Treaty of Ghent-On December 24, 1814 ended the War of 1812 and restored the status quo. For the most part, territory captured in the war was returned to the original owner. It also set up a commission to determine the disputed Canada/U.S. border.
2nd BUS-The 1st BUS was destroyed by Jackson and instead of re-chartering in 1836, the year of expiration, Clay, Webster, and National Republicans pushed it early because they knew Jackson would veto it and wanted to use this as a point against Jackson in the coming Election