Cause #1 - Resources
Europeans were surviving on their base resources they had there but these were simple common materials. This lead to the people trying to cross over and get desired resources from china but the routes were taken over. This need for resources led to motivated individuals taking initiative and thinking of ways to get the desired materials. This lead to them deciding they would explore and find a new route to Asia.
Cause #2 - Religion
During the crusades the christian Europeans found that there were many other people out there and they had other beliefs. One way Christians believed they would save others would be by converting others to Christianity. This would also build the strength and political power of the church. These things made the Church send out missionaries to spread their religion around the world so allow would be "saved".
Effect #1 - Slavery
When routes were set up from colonies set up in the newly explored lands the natives were round up and sold as slaves. In the Americas the Indians were captured for slaves. In Africa the indigenous Africans were sold. The fact is if you were not European or somewhat civilized you were killed or made a slave. This was a large trade for years across the world.
Effect #2 - wealthy Europe
With all the new resources and trade goods coming back to Europe it gave an economic boost to Europe. The explorers sold a lot of their goods to merchants who then sold to people traveling from all over bringing more money into Europe. Another Way Europe's economy grew was all the gold and silver brought back made it easier to heighten the economy by trading it to the wealthy for money, and just its value in general made it so they were essentially bringing money into Europe.
This was made off knowledge from me that i learned from teachers i used no external source for this.