History of the Red Orchestra
Red Orchestra is the name for a Russian spy network that infiltrated German army during World War II. The Red Orchestra was established in 1937 under the Soviet military by Leopold Trepper (Leib Domb), a Polish Jew.
Soon after the Germans occupied France in 1940; soon the Red Orchestra moved its headquarters to Paris and set up offices around Western Europe. The network managed to infiltrate main German offices in Paris, including the German air force and high command.
What did they Accomplished
The Red Orchestra successfully found out about the imminent German invasion of the Soviet Union and passed on detailed information to Joseph Stalin who, for whatever reason, refused to acknowledge it. The network also gave advance warning of the German attacks on Moscow, Stalingrad, and the Caucasus. However, German army began tailing the Red Orchestra in late 1941, and members were arrested in spring 1942. By November, the Paris headquarters were liquidated and Trepper arrested. He escaped less than a year later. After the war Trepper was flown to Moscow, where instead of receiving the hero's welcome he expected, he was framed and thrown into jail. He was released in 1955, and in 1973 immigrated to Israel.
The Spy System
The RSHA included three independent espionage networks in the "Red Orchestra": the Trepper group in Germany, France, and Belgium, the Lucy spy ring in Switzerland, and the Schulze-Boysen/Harnack group in Berlin.
The Lucy ring included British spy (either a double-agent or, more likely, an accepted liaison officer) Alexander Foote, who later wrote about his role in his memoirs.
In 1942 the RSHA established the Red Orchestra Special Detachment. It included representatives of the Gestapo, Abwehr, and the SD.