Biology: Chapter 8 By: Brian Sheridan

Watson & Crick:

- The first people to find DNA by figuring out that genetic information goes from the DNA to RNA to protein and they identified its shape as a helix because of double binds that existed

- After finding out what DNA looks like, they made a model DNA out of copper wire and were later awarded a Nobel Peace Prize for it.

Chargaff Rule:

Erwin Chargaff studied DNA and made different rules about DNA.

Rule 1: In DNA the amounts of thymine and adenine are equal, as well as the amounts of cytosine and guanine.

Rule 2: In different species, there are different amounts of adenine and guanine in their DNA's.

How do the base pairs bind?

In DNA, each strand has a matching partner (A,T & G,C).

These strands are complimentary, and fuse together.

What is a chromosome?

Chromosomes contain DNA and proteins.

They contain genetic information.

Before a cell splits, the chromosomes double due to DNA replication.

What is a karyotype?

A karyotype is a picture of a person's diploid set of chromosomes

Diploid chromosomes are created when someone has two sets of chromosomes.

How does DNA replicate?

In DNA replication, a cell copies its own DNA

During this, the hydrogen bonds that hold the DNA together are broken, and it begins to unravel.

Enzymes then make primers, which are new attaching points for DNA.

When primers connects, the DNA is replicated.

What damages DNA?

Radiation from X-Rays, UV light, and gamma rays can damage DNA.

These things harm DNA by either completely breaking the DNA, or altering smaller parts that still have a big impact on the DNA's function.

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