Southern Africa 377-396

1. Madagascar the country is the world's forth largest island. The Cape of Good Hope at the southern tip of the continent is considered the place where two oceans meet. Comoros, Mauritius, and Seychelles are tiny. Their combined area of 1,800 sq. miles makes then smaller then Delaware.

2. Escarpment is a steep cliff between a higher and lower surface, runs parallel to the Atlantic Coast and continues through Namibia. The Kalahari Desert is a vast, sand-covered plateau that sits some 3,00 feet above sea level. The Namib runs 1,200 miles from southern Angola to western South Africa, where it merges with another desert, the Kalahari.

4. The three major river systems is the Zambezi, Limpopo, and Orange.

5. "Question" - " Which type of land form is common in Southern Africa?"

5. "Answer" - Plateau's with largely forested tops and covered in grasslands. They have high elevations and flat tops.

  • 6. Southern Africa has a wide variety of climates, ranging from humid to arid to hot to cool. The Tropic of Capricorn crosses the middle of Southern Africa. This makes half of the region in the tropics. Temperatures on summer days in lowland areas, however, can exceed 100 degrees fahrenheit.

7. Annual rainfall varies from 8 inches in some areas and 24 inches in others. Mostly all of the rainfall happens during the summer. Lesotho, Swaziland, and eastern South Africa , including the Indian Ocean coastline, are much wetter.

8. Temperatures along the coast are mild, however, with daily averages ranging from 48 degrees, to 68 degrees fahrenheit. Even though in some years no rain fall happens, there is still fog and dew that provide moisture to small plants.

9. "Question" - "Why are temperatures in Southern Africa's tropical countries generally not hot?"

9. "Answer" - The fog and mild temperatures are caused by the cold Benguela Current that flows along the coast. This is normally called the "Skeleton Coast" because

10. "Question" - " What natural resources are found in Southern Africa and why are they important?"

10. "Answer" - It has natural oil and gas reserves, one of the largest diamond producers, and also one of the largest producers of platinum, chromium, and gold. Along with important deposits of coal, iron ore, uranium, copper, and other materials. These are important because they can be turned into other products and be used such as oil. It can be used for other things just like all of the metals, and diamonds.

11. South Africa has lots of natural resources. These resources include metals such as platinum, copper, gold, diamonds, etc. These can be turned into jewelry and other things. Those resources along with coal, iron, ore, etc made a thriving mining industry. This industry has attracted many workers, and investments from other countries that have helped South Africa's Industries grow.

12. South Africa also has multiple energy resources too. Mozambique mine and burn coal from their own supply which produce most of their electric power. Angola has large deposits of natural gas as well as Mozambique. Angola is also one of Africa's leading oil producers.

13. Gold is a leading export for Zimbabwe. Mozambique has the largest supply of the rare metal tantalite, which is used to make electronic parts and camera lenses. Malawi's most important natural resource is its fertile soil.

14. Poaching, or illegally killing game, is a problem. South Africa is known for its variety of animal life. Wildebeests, lions, zebras, giraffes, and many other animals are found across the region. They live within and outside the many national parks and wildlife reserves that nearly every country has created to protect them.

15. "Question" - "How does deforestation affect the energy supply in the region?

15. "Answer" - If they cut down all the trees the animals will lose their habitat. But this will affect the energy supply in the region because this will dry up dams, the water supply will go down.

1. Many people were hunter-gatherers, herded cattle. Some traded ivory, gold, copper, and other goods moved from the interior to the east coast.

2. Around a.d. 900 the Shona people built a wealthy and powerful kingdom in what is now Zimbabwe and Mozambique. Great Zimbabwe had become a great commercial center, collecting gold mined nearby and trading it to Arabs at ports on the Indian Ocean.sdfg

3. The Mutapa Empire was founded in 1430. This place was a Shona kingdom which went all the way from Zambezi through The Limpopo rivers to the Indian Ocean in Southern Africa.

4. Some of the early kingdoms were influenced by Arab and Muslim culture. French troops invaded the Kingdom of Madagascar in 1895 and made it a French possession.

5. Much of the European colonies began settling along the African coast around the 1500's.

6. Boers are the Dutch word for Boers these people grew wheat, and raised sheep, and cattle.

7. There were many wars in Europe these wars gave Britain control of the Cape Colony around the early 1800's.

8. French was now in control of what is now Comoros. Britain now has the colonies Maruritius and Seychelles.

9. "Question" - "Which European country claimed the most territory in Southern Africa in the 1800's?"

9. "Answer" - Cape Colony

10. Britain granted or gave independence to Malawi and Zambia in 1964 and to Botswana and Lesotho in 1966.

11. Angola and Mozambique became independent countries in 1975 as a result of Portugal overthrowing their government, and pulling the troops out of Africa.

12. When Rhodesia's African population demanded the right to vote . Their government denied their request and a guerrilla war began.

13. By the 1970's countries started placing embargo's or bans on trade. Civil Disobedience, disobeying certain laws as means of protest. Apartheid and Afrikaans word meaning "apartness"

1. The population is mainly black Africans, 10 percent is the largest white minority in this region.

2. Population in the region heavily depends on geography and economics. South Africa and Angola are about the same size. South Africa which has the regions most industrialized nation, has three times as many people.

3. Some 4.5 million Tsonga people are spread among the countries of South Africa, Zimbabwe, and Mozambique. Similar ranges of number of Ovimbundu and 2.5 million Mbundu make up approximately two-thirds of Angola's population. Southern Africa holds or is home to many different cultural and ethnic groups.

4. In most countries of South Africa the people there are Christians. Swaziland, Zambia, Malawi, and Mozambique also have large Muslim populations.

5. "Question" - "What is the main religion practiced in Southern Africa?"

5. "Answer" - Christianity is the religion that people in most countries in Southern Africa practice or believe in.

6. Urban and Economic growth are challenging and changing many of the traditional ways.

7. Even though some people live on the countryside, migration to the city still grows since of all the job opportunities.

8. Utilities are services such as trash collection, sewage treatment, and water distribution. Outside the central city are the white neighborhoods where about 20% of the city's population live. Johannesburg's role as a mining manufacturing, and financial center has attracted people from around the world.

9. Thatch is straw or other plant material used to cover roofs. Periodic Markets are open trading markets held regularly at crossroads or in larger town.

10. "Question" - “Where in their countries do most Southern Africans live?”

10." Answer" - The countryside

11. Since South Africa has much wealth of mineral, wildlife, and other resources will most likely be the key to its future.

12. Most people in South Africa do not live beyond ages 50 to 55.

13. Malaria, a tropical disease carried by mosquitoes. Dysentery and cholera, potentially fatal diseases caused by bacteria in water, are also widespread. About 100 to 120 of every 1,000 children die in infancy.

14. Tourism at national parks has grown with the establishment of stable, democratic governments. Oil exports in Angola and aluminium exports in Mozambique help finance this effort.

15. The United States has used economic aid to strengthen democracy in Southern Africa. Other countries and international organizations have also made huge investments in the region. Problems like these mirror the challenges that many other countries in Southern Africa also confront.

16. "Question" - “Why is life expectancy in Southern Africa so low?”

16. "Answer" - Lack of good rural health care is one reason, although many countries are trying to build or improve rural clinics.

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