Chapter Eleven How Cells Reproduce

The Cell Cycle-Like all living things, cells enjoy a lifecycle during whihc they grow, develop, and eventually reproduce. The series of events which culminate in cell division are collectivelly known as the cell cycle.

Interphase-A cell will soend a majority of its lufe in interphase. During this period, the cell functions normally and synthesizes DNA to prepare for mitosis. There a threee stages of interphase: G1 (cell growth), S (DNA Synthesis), and G2 (protien synthesis and checkpoints).

Prophase-During prophase, mitosis officially begins, as the centrosomes begin to move to opposite ends of the cell. Additionally, microtubules begin to bind together to form a spindle while the nuclear envelope begins to break down. Sister chromatids are attached to opposite centromeres.

Metaphase-In this part of the cell cycle, the chromosomes begin to line up along the metaphase plate as the miotoc spindles attach to them.

Anaphase-In anaphase, the centromeres are broken by the pull of the miotic spindles. Sister chromatids now begin to move towards opposite ends of the dividing cell.

Telophase-As two nuclear envelopes begins to reform, the miotic spindles dissolve. Furthermore, the now two observanel cells begin to cleave apart.

Telomeres-Telomeres are protective caps found on the end sof a chromosome which prevent the detrioration of genetic materials. As they grow thinner, genetic information is damaged, leading to aging and eventually, death.

Cancer-Cancer is a disease marked by the uncontrollable division of cells. This leads to the destruction of certain bodily tissue, and also the growthof tumors (clumps of cancer cells which serve no purpose but to use up the body's resources).

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