Protests to the Vietnam War. Protests began among peace activists and left-leaning individuals on college campuses. They held anti-war marches and other protests. SDS was Students for a Democratic Society, an organization advocating for the end to the war in Vietnam. By 1967, 15,058 Americans had been killed and 109,527 had been injured. They continued to draft people. This only fueled tensions. People avoided the draft by making up medical conditions, vocally objecting to the war, and having children The type of demonstration used for protest against the Vietnam War was used in protests for other movements, such as feminism.
Problems and Radicalism on College Campuses. College students and student activism played a large role in the Vietnam War era. Student activism became popular and manifested itself first during the civil rights movement and through the forming of student organizations, which paved the way for the antiwar movement. Students for a Democratic Society (SDS) was the most popular student protest group against going to war in Vietnam. The SDS sponsored a march on Washington in April 1965, which was the first national demonstration against the war, and 20,000 young people participated. Many college campuses were completely shut down due to protests.
Emerging Feminist Movement. The goal of the emerging feminist movement or "Second Wave" of the 1960's and 1970's was originally focused on changing workplace inequality and changing the denial of access to better jobs and salary inequity, by making anti- discrimination laws. A group of women led by Betty Friedan formed a national independent organization and group called the NOW or National Organization for Women, which many view was the formal start to the beginnings of the women's right movement. Women strived for equal rights and continued to do this, despite the opposition and discrimination they faced.
Challenging Social Norms and the Traditional American Family. Women were expected to still be in the home and raising children but more and more women began to work. Because of this and the persisting feelings of men that women should stay home, women were payed less than men for equal work. Divorce becomes more common in the 1960's and the idea of a single parent develops for the first time.
Migrant Workers and Cesar Chavez. Cesar Chavez was a leader and advocate of labor unions and more protection for workers. He led many nonviolent strikes in hopes of getting better conditions and pay for workers, mostly farmers and immigrant workers. His efforts led to the signing of many contracts and he gained a lot of support. Through his work, many states, including Florida, California, Texas, and Arizona, ended up raising salaries for workers and improving conditions.
Hippies and Woodstock. Woodstock was a music festival scheduled for August 15-18 1969 on a 600 acre dairy farm in New York State. The founders of the event only expected to draw 50,000-100,000 people. About 100,000 tickets were presold for the event but so many people flooded the grounds the founders decided to make the admission free. An estimated 400,000 people actually came, sanitation and food were scarce because of the underestimated amount of people that would come. The event was non violent, 2 people died and two people were born. The event had lasting effects and the young generation of the late 60's and early 70's were referred to as the Woodstock generation.
Landmark Supreme Court Cases
Gomillion v. Lightfoot, (1960) Electoral district boundaries drawn only to disenfranchise blacks and violate the Fifteenth Amendment.
Boynton v. Virginia (1960) Racial segregation in all forms of public transportation is illegal under the Interstate Commerce Act of 1887.
Garner v. Louisiana, (1961) Peaceful sit-in demonstrators protesting segregationist policies cannot be arrested under a state's "disturbing the peace" laws.
Loving v. Virginia, (1967) Laws that prohibit interracial marriage (anti-miscegenation laws) are unconstitutional.
Jones v. Alfred H. Mayer Co., (1968) The federal government may prohibit discrimination in housing by private parties under the Civil Rights Act of 1968.
Swann v. Charlotte-Mecklenburg Board of Education, (1971) The busing of students to promote racial integration in public schools is constitutional.