the earth has the 6 layers (crust, mantle, convertion connects, outter core and inner. the crust is made of tectonic plates floats on the mantle liquid. Mantle liquid moves itself with the heat.It makes a vast swirl.When the mantle liquid swirl the tectonic plates moves with it. mantle is made of molten rocks which is magma. outer core is made of iron and nickel. the inner core is made of iron and nikel iron alloy.
Avalanche has two elements to form. Steepy and a weak slop of ice. It triggers colapse of snow layers.
You can stop floods flooding the place with more dams. we can put less ponds, rivers and lakes in the inner lands. put more trees, fences and buildings.