1492, Columbus thought he knows a shortcut to the spice islands in India. He thought he could go in the opposite direction then the other sailors went, to get there way faster. He didn't know that there is an other continent in between Europe and Asia. Spain had enough money so they agree to finance Columbus's voyage.
Europeans got the spices from India because the climate in Europe is not good for spices. They had to travel to India every time to get spices. The trip over there was super dangerous and really expensive. They usually lost most of the people and boats on their way back and forth, because of pirates and the climate and just because they haven't had the right things for a safe trip over the ocean. All that is what caused Columbus to go and find a shortcut.
The effect of Columbus doing this trip what he thought was a short cut was that he discovered America, a new world. He also discovered the native Americans who lives there. He tells everyone from Europe about this new world. The long term effects are that people from Europe immigrated to america because they were exited for the new world and it's opportunities. England took over America and ruled over it for many years.
After Columbus discovered America and the native Americans who were the only ones who lives there, Europeans came over to America. They took advantage of the native Americans and wanted them to work and treated them badly. Barolome de las canses is a spanish priest in america and doesn't like how the native Americans get treated. He sends a note to Spain to protest for the treatment of the native people.
This is caused through the discovery of america. He though he was in India so he called the native Americans Indians. They haven't had weapons as good as the Europeans. In general they just weren't as progressively than the Europeans, so it was easy for them to take control over them and use them for their own advantages. They treated them bad, even though it was their own land and home.
The effect of Bortolome de las Casas protesting was huge. They got rights back and also freedom. Not complete all of them but way more than they had before. They had protection and the Europeans couldn't just do what ever they want. The Spanish and Portuguese people started importing slave labor from Africa.
1450, The triangular Trade started. The people understood thet they have to work with each other to get what they want. So the Americans just took the Africans for their own wealthiness and let them work. That a really sad time in our history and it's still out there.
America needed slaves so they could do all the work. They had a lot of hard work to do to get raw products and they used the slaves for that. They for example had to get metals out of the ground or sugar. Europe wanted all those raw products from america. They finished those raw products to end products. After they were finished, they exported them to Colonies in Africa.
The effect of this Triangular Trade is that there were many slaves, what is absolutely horrible. They just took them from Africa for their own use. Europe got really rich through all that. They made a lot of money with finishing those products and selling them afterwards. This was the start of importing and exporting. The whole world started shipping things around.