Dred Scott traveled to Illinois and Minnesota with his master. He made a claim that since he was in free territory he should be freed. Chief Justice Roger Taney disagreed and said that Dred Scott was still a slave because he was still the property of his owner. Taney ruled that no slave should have American Citizenship (DSD).
The Emancipation Proclamation was an order issued by Abraham Lincoln which decreed all slaves in the confederacy free. Unfortunately the confederacy was no longer a part of the Union and this order was useless.
In 1865, Lincoln wanted to end slavery everywhere in the United States for good. In order for that to happen the 13th amendment was made and was approved by 27 states and was accepted.
In 1868, Chief Justice of the Supreme Court said that no slaves would be able to become US citizens.The 14th Amendment changed that and said no matter what if the were born in the US they could be an American citizen.
Before 1870, African Americans were not allowed to vote even if they were never slaves. The 15th Amendment made it illegal to deny another man to vote because of race.
In 1896 the supreme court case, Plessy v. Ferguson ruled that segregation is legal as long as both parties have equal accommodations. This is based of the idea of separate but equal.
In 1954 the supreme court case Brown v. Board of Education the supreme court ruled that segregation in public schools was unconstitutional
In 1955 Rosa Parks was arrested for refusing to give up her seat to a white passenger. Peaceful protests began called boycotts. boycotts are when you refuse to use a given or offered service. On December 21st 1956 the US supreme court ruled the segregation of public buses unconstitutional ending the Montgomery Bus Boycott.
In 1957 a group of nine black students attempted to go to a college in Little Rock Arkansas. These people would become known as the little rock nine. The supreme court ruled that segregation in public schools was unconstitutional, but the governor tried to stop them by sending in the national guard. President Eisenhower overruled this decision.
In February of 1960, Black people began peaceful protests against discrimination by preforming sit-ins. Sit-ins are when people would walk into a discriminated restaurant or bar and sit down until they were either served or forced to leave.
In November of 1960 Ruby Bridges was one of the first black students to attend school in New Orleans. She went to school as a first grader and had to be escorted by US federal marshals.
In 1961 people began protesting by riding on buses to segregated areas of the south to challenge the laws. These people were called freedom riders.
In 1962 a black boy by the name of James Meredith applied for college at the University of Mississippi. When the University learned of his race they rejected his application but the Supreme Court ruled that he could attend but he had to have escorts from US Marshals
In August of 1963 Martin Luther King Jr. delivered one of his most famous speeches, the I have a Dream speech. MLK called for racism to end and encouraged the president to pass laws against discrimination.