Mitosis ends up with two identical daughter cells, when meiosis makes four sex cells.
Klinefelter's syndrome (XXY) is an example of chromosomal aneuploidy that can be readily diagnosed by karyotyping. Klinefelter's syndrome, XXY males, can occur due to nondisjunction of X chromosomes during prophase of meiosis I in females.
This additional genetic material alters the course of development and causes the characteristics associated with Down syndrome. A few of the common physical traits of Down syndrome are low muscle tone, small stature, an upward slant to the eyes, and a single deep crease across the center of the palm - although each person with Down syndrome is a unique individual and may possess these characteristics to different degrees, or not at all.
Turner syndrome is a chromosomal condition that affects development in females. The most common feature of Turner syndrome is short stature, which becomes evident by about age 5. An early loss of ovarian function is also very common. The ovaries develop normally at first, but egg cells usually die prematurely and most ovarian tissue degenerates before birth. Many affected girls do not undergo puberty unless they receive hormone therapy, and most are unable to conceive (infertile). A small percentage of females with Turner syndrome retain normal ovarian function through young adulthood.
NONDISJUNCTION is where the chromosomes may not separate and cause conflict in the daughter cell
RECESSIVE GENES it's only on autosomal chromosomes so any other chromosomes besides the sex ones. A gene that is phenotypically expressed in the homozygous state but has its expression masked in the presence of a dominant gene.
DOMINANT GENE This is a gene in the DNA that makes chromosomes and determines weather or not you will have brown hair or brown eyes, brown is a dominant gene.
SOMATIC CELL this is any living organism or cell other than the reproductive cell.
GERM CELL this is a cell that has potential of turning into a gamete.