Foundations of Reform
Legal Foundations of International Monetary Stability which will appeal to both practitioners and academics, is a book on monetary law and related aspects of financial regulation providing a systematic and thorough study of how national, supra-national and international developments have dramatically changed the dynamic field of monetary law over the last two decades. Lastra looks at this in three main parts. Beginning with the notion of monetary sovereignty, its attributes and limitations, the author goes on to analyse the concept of monetary stability and the institutional developments to promote it, in particular independent central banks and currency boards. Since a sound banking system is essential for maintaining monetary stability, the book also presents a legal study of the design of supervision and of the mechanisms available to the national authorities to confront banking crises and to maintain financial stability. The monetary law reform process in emerging economies is also examined.
Abolitionism is a movement to end slavery, whether formal or informal. In Western Europe and the Americas, abolitionism is a historical movement to end the African and Indian slave trade and set slaves free. King Charles I of Spain, usually known as Emperor Charles V, following the example of Louis X of France who abolished slavery within the Kingdom of France in 1315, passed a law which would have abolished colonial slavery in 1542, although this law was not passed in the largest colonial states, and so was not enforced. In the late 17th century, the Roman Catholic Church, taking up a plea by Lourenco da Silva de Mendouca, officially condemned the slave trade, which was affirmed vehemently by Pope Gregory XVI in 1839. An abolitionist movement only started in the late 18th century, however, when English and American Quakers began to question the morality of slavery
The first half of the nineteenth century was a time of dramatic change in the United States. New technology rapidly transformed business and industry, as well as agriculture. The beginnings of industrialization stimulated shifts in population from rural to more urban areas. Waves of immigrants arrived at eastern port cities. And the availability of low-cost land on the western frontier with the continual acquisition of national territory prompted thousands to set out for the West. These economic and demographic dislocations introduced new social problems and aggravated long-existing ones, especially those concerning matters of poverty, morality, and social justice. Though less quantifiable than other social and economic issues, the decline of religious and moral standards was feared by many Americans in a society they saw as becoming increasingly more secular.
Concern for the future of the nation led many Americans to propose measures to regulate the morality of the nation. Several national societies formed to mold the nation in accordance with what their founders conceived to be the means to preserve freedom through the will and word of the Lord. Other reformers, also believing that special organizations could curb some of the most alarming social evils, founded societies for ending slavery and the consumption of alcohol.
The urge for moral and social improvement was pronounced in Wisconsin. The 1830s and 1840s were the big era of church organization in the Wisconsin Territory. Many of these churches sent or organized missionary and benevolent societies to recruit new members, reform existing communities, or open schools. Church-sponsored benevolent societies also allowed white middle-class women new community leadership and involvement roles than had previously been deemed respectable and appropriate for women.
One of the earliest reform movements to agitate in Wisconsin was temperance. The first temperance society west of Lake Michigan was founded in Green Bay in 1832. Small temperance societies had formed throughout the territory by the 1840s. Promoters of the movement directed much of their attention toward immigrants, who often held a different view of alcohol than the primarily white Anglo-Saxon proponents of temperance. Attempts to stop the production and sale of alcohol by legislation only served to widen the gulf between recent immigrants and native-born Americans.
The idea of universal male suffrage, an initial goal of the Chartist movement, was to include all males as voters regardless of their social standing. This later evolved into a campaign for universal suffrage. This movement sought to redraw the parliamentary districts within Great Britain and create a salary system for elected officials so workers could afford to represent their constituents without a burden on their families.
Women's rights are the rights and entitlements claimed for women and girls worldwide,and formed the basis for women's rights movement in the nineteenth century and feminist movement during the 20th century.In some countries these rights are institutionalized or supported by law local custom and behavior whereas in other they are ignored and suppressed. They differ from broader notions of human rights through claims of an inherent historical and traditional bias against the exercise of rights by women and girls in favor of men and boys.or supported by law, local custom, and behavior, whereas in others they are ignored and suppressed. They differ from broader notions of human rights through claims of an inherent historical and traditional bias against the exercise of rights by women and girls, in favor of men and boys.Issues commonly associated with notions of women's rights include, though are not limited to, the right: to bodily integrity and autonomy; to be free from sexual violence; to vote; to hold public office; to enter into legal contracts; to have equal rights in family law; to work; to fair wages or equal pay; to have reproductive rights; to own property; to education.