Topic 2: Brown stock This is an amber liquid made by simmering poultry, beef, veal, or game bones that have been browned first. First, roast the bones in a 400 degree F oven for about 2 hours, watch so they don't burn, just want them toasty brown not blackened. Add 1 quart of water for each pound of bones. For 5 pounds add 1 bunch of carrots, 1 head celery, and 3 yellow onions. Bring the stock to a heavy simmer, uncovered, and cook for 12 hours.
Topic 3: Fumet very similar to fish stock, thick is a highly flavored stock made with fish bones. Rinse the fish bones to remove any excess skin or scales which might be sticking to them. Heat a large stock pot over medium heat and add the oil. Add the vegetables and stir. Then add the wine and reduce by half. Add the cold water, bay leaf, peppercorns and parsley. Let it cool and strain through cheesecloth.
Topic 4: Court bouillon This is an aromatic vegetable broth used for poaching fish or vegetables. Fill a large stockpot with 7 quarts of water. Make a bouquet garni: Place the herbs, spices, and bay leaves on a square of cheesecloth; tie into a bundle with kitchen twine. Add to pot. Cover, and bring mixture to a simmer over medium-low heat. Uncover; gently simmer 30 minutes.
Topic 5: Glace sometimes referred to as a "glaze," this is a reduced stock with a jelly-like consistency, made from brown stock, chicken stock, or fish stock. To make the glace stock, preheat the oven to 450 degrees F. Then place the bones in a roasting pan and roast for 1 hour.
Glace stock; jelly-like texture
Topic 6: Remouillage This is a weak stock made from bones that have already been used in a another preparation, sometimes used to replace water as the liquid used in stock: remouillage is the french word for "rewetting." Put bones in a 2-quart pot, cover with water, bring it to a full boil. Return the bones to the 2-quart pot and cover again with fresh water and bring to a simmer. Later, add the onion, carrots and bay leaf for the last hour of cooking.
Topic 7: Bouillon This is the liquid that results from simmering meats or vegetables; also referred to as broth. Bring the water to a boil. Place 1 bouillon cube into the pot for each cup of boiling water and wait for it to be ready.
Topic 8: Jus This is a rich, slightly reduced stock used as a sauce for roasted meats. Melt fat in a skillet over medium-high heat. Whisk flour into beef fat; cook, whisking constantly, until the mixture thickens, about 3 minutes. Pour beef broth into fat mixture; increase heat to high and bring mixture to a boil. Then boil mixture until it thickens slightly; season with salt and pepper to taste.
Topic 9: Vegetable stock This is usually made from mirepoix, leeks, and turnips. Tomatoes, garlic, and seasonings may also be added to flavor or darken stock, but tomatoes must be strained with a cheesecloth or filter so that no seeds or skins get into the stock. This is referred to as a tomato concasse. A chef might roast the vegetables or add a large amount of a particular vegetable, such as mushrooms for a mushroom stock.
Importance of stocks: I believe stocks are very important and it is a necessary topic to learn about for beginners. Stocks provide the taste in many favorite dishes all aroound the world. They also have many uses and can be stored for later use as well.