Protein Synthesis kathya ramos

Protein Synthesis

Protein Synthesis is the process by which cells build specific proteins to create different functions. Created by DNA and different function of ribonucleic acids this process is done in the nucleus, where specific enzymes loosen up needed section of the DNA for RNA to be made. Then RNA molecule moves from nucleus to cytoplasm where the real process is taken place in.

Organelles Involved in Protein Synthesis

There are 4 organelles involved in protein synthesis which include the nucleus, ribosomes, rough ER, and Golgi apparatus. All four of these organelles work together to make and package the proteins.

The Importance of Protein Synthesis

Protein Synthesis is important because DNA is in the nucleus and ribosome in the cytoplasm, in which cells rely on RNA to transfer the information. In this process protein created control the activities of the cell and almost everything in our bodies is used by proteins.


Transcription is the process in which information in the DNA is copied.

Steps of Transcriptions

The DNA unwinds then creates one side of DNA "coding for a protein". Creating a genetic code of DNA with 3 nucleotides or bases. Each base is specific to a coding of amino acids. The sequence of triplet codes on DNA will specify the amino acids and the sequence of a protein. Majority step is the synthesis. mRNA is then transcribed.

What organelles are involved

There are two organelles involved during the process of transcription which are the nucleus, in which DNA transcriptions into mRNA. The other organelle involved in the process is ribosomes, which is responsible for the translation of proteins and are composed of RNA and proteins.


The process by which the ribosomes bind to RNA in a specific area, in which the ribosomes start matching tRNA anticodon sequences to mRNA codon. Each time a new tRNA comes into the ribosome, amino acids that carry the ribosomes add the polypeptide chain.. the ribosome then continues until the codon stops and releases the polypeptide. The polypeptide then forms into its own shap and starts functioning as a protein in a cell.

What organelles are involved

There are two organelles involved in this process ribosomes and Endoplasmic Reticulum. Ribosomes are responsible for protein translation and made of protein and RNA.


Mutation occurs when the DNA gene is damaged or incorrect in way that changes the genetic message.

What is a mutation

A mistake in the DNA sequence

What causes mutation

The cause of mutation is when one of the four chemicals which include: cytosine, guanine, thymine and adenine. During the processes errors can occur in the chemicals causing there to be a mix in the chemicals that don't go together.

Different types of Mutation

Inversion: An inversion in a chromosome occurs when a single chromosome goes through a breakage and rearranges itself

Translocation: Translocation occurs when a part of the chromosomes are relocated and moved to another position on the same chromosome.


Duplication occurs when a DNA segment in a chromosome that is a copy of another segment.


Addition mutation occurs when a number of nucleotides cause a shift in the reading of the codon in mRNA, that will lead to a change the amino acid sequence at protein translation.


A deletion is a type of mutation that occurs when part of chromosome is lost during DNA replication. The number of nucleotides can be deleted from a base to the whole chromosome.


Substitution is a mutation that exchanges one base for another. It causes a change in a codon to one that encodes a different amino acid and cause changes in the protein produced.

Difference between Frameshift and Point mutation:

A point mutation is when there is one nucleotide base change in the DNA and one amino acid change. A framshift mutation is when there is a deletion or addition of one base and when many amino acids are changed.

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kathya r

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