Chapter 29

The centeral nervous system is a group of nerve tissue that controls the body. It is the brain and spinal cord.

The peripheral nervous system is the nervous system outside of the brain and spinal cord. Involves the nerves

Somatic nervous system part of the peripheral nervous system associated with skeletal muscle voluntary control of body movements. Uses sensory nerves to move you Body.

The autonomic nervous system is the part of the nervous system responsible for control of the bodily functions not consciously directed, such as breathing, the heartbeat, and digestive processes.

Parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous system

Parasympathetic nervous system conserves energy as it slows the heart rate, increases intestinal and gland activity, and relaxes sphincter muscles in the gastrointestinal tract. Sympathetic nervous system can accelerate heart rate; widen bronchial passages; decrease movement of the large intestine; constrict blood vessels; increase peristalsis in the esophagus; cause pupillary dilation, erection and perspiration

Sensory neurons are nerve cells within the nervous system responsible for converting external stimuli from the organism's environment into internal electrical impulses.

Interneuron transmits impulses between other neurons, especially as part of a reflex arc.

Motor neuron a nerve cell forming part of a pathway along which impulses pass from the brain or spinal cord to a muscle or gland.

Neuromuscular junction enables a motor neuron is able to transmit a signal to the muscle fiber, causing muscle contraction.

Acetylcholine is an organic chemical that functions in the brain and body of many types of animals, including humans, as a neurotransmitter which is a chemical released by nerve cells to send signals to other cells.

Norepinephrine and epinephrine are the flight/fight hormones that are released when the body is under extreme stress. During stress, much of the body's energy is used to combat imminent danger.

Synapse is a junction between two nerve cells, consisting of a minute gap across which impulses pass by diffusion of a neurotransmitter.

White matter is composed of bundles of myelinated nerve cell projections, which connect various gray matter areas of the brain to each other, and carry nerve impulses between neurons.

Grey matter is a major component of the central nervous system, consisting of neuronal cell bodies, neuropil, glial cells, synapses, and capillaries.

Cerebral cortex is the outer layer of the cerebrum composed of folded gray matter and playing an important role in consciousness.

The cerebral cortex is divided into four sections: the frontal lobe, parietal lobe, occipital lobe, and temporal lobe.

Limbic system is complex system of nerves and networks in the brain, involving several areas near the edge of the cortex concerned with instinct and mood. It controls the basic emotions and drives.

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