President Activity The First 5
Domestic Policy- Washington supported Secretary of the Treasury Alexander Hamilton's Federalist financial plans, including a national bank and a tax on whiskey. The latter led to a minor revolt in Pennsylvania, the Whiskey Rebellion, and Washington mobilized troops from neighboring states to quell the uprising. Washington appointed the first cabinet and persuaded Congress to give him authority to fire executive branch employees.
Foreign Policy- When France and England began fighting again, the president chose to remain neutral. Elsewhere, harassment by Barbary pirates persuaded Washington to build up an American navy. Within North America, agreements were made with Spain allowing American ships to navigate the Mississippi freely, allowing agricultural products grown around the Ohio River to reach the Atlantic port of New Orleans.
The Northwest Indian War- When Washington assumed the presidency, he was faced with the ongoing challenge of the Northwest Indian War. The Indian Western Lakes Confederacy had been making raids in the Northwest Territory on both sides of the Ohio River and, in the years before Washington's presidency, had grown increasingly dangerous.
John Adams was a Founding Father, the first vice president of the United States and the second president.He studied at Harvard University, where he received his undergraduate degree and master's, and in 1758 was admitted to the bar. In 1774, he served on the First Continental Congress and helped draft the Declaration of Independence. He also was diplomat in Europe as the Ambassador to Holland(Which is now The Netherlands) and the Ambassador to Great Britain.
Political Party and his Domestic Policy- Adams was a Federalist. He also decided that domestic matters should be handled by Congress and to control foreign policy himself. Not only did the Constitution vest the President with responsibility for foreign policy but Adams also had a lot of experience in Foreign policy considering he was a Ambassador to two different countries.
Political Party/Election- Jefferson, who was a democratic-republican, had a tight race in his election, which due to a tie had to be settled by congress, who also tied over 30 times. This lead to the passing of the 12th Amendment. The 12th Amendment said that electors have to say if they vote from President and Vice President.
Domestic/Foreign policy-Despite the build up of the American navy, the British and french still continued with their impressment of US merchant sailors. This lead to Jefferson sign the Embargo act. The Embargo act prohibited American ships from trading in all foreign ports. Which in return actually hurt the US economy.
Wars- The First Barbary War was the only declared war that occurred during Jefferson's two terms as president and it marked the first war the United States engaged in on foreign soil and seas. It was against the african "Barbary States". The war was started because Barbary pirates seized american Merchants and were holding them for ransom. On May 15, Jefferson's cabinet voted unanimously to send three frigates and a schooner to the Mediterranean with orders to make a show of force but opt for peace; if a state of war existed they could use their own discretion. The frigates were the famous USS Philadelphia, USS President, and the USS Essex along with the schooner USS Enterprise, and became the first American naval squadron to cross the Atlantic.Wearied of the blockade and raids, and now under threat of US advances into Tripoli Yusuf Karamanli signed a treaty ending hostilities on 10 June 1805. The US and Tripoli Exchanged Prisoners and the US paid 60,000 to end the war.
Louisiana Purchase- The Louisiana Purchase in 1803 was when the United States purchased approximately 828,000,000 square miles of territory from France. This purchase doubled the size of the young nation. The Louisiana Territory stretched from the Mississippi River in the east to the Rocky Mountains in the west and from the Gulf of Mexico in the south to the Canadian border in the north. Parts of 15 states or even all of some, were eventually created from the land deal. The Louisiana Purchase is considered one of the most important achievements of Thomas Jefferson’s presidency.
Dates- March 4, 1809, James Madison was inaugurated as President of the United States, and ended on March 4, 1817. Madison, the fourth United States president, took office after defeating Charles Cotesworth Pinckney decisively in the 1808 presidential election. He was re-elected four years later, defeating DeWitt Clinton in the 1812 election.
The War of 1812- In the war the United States took on the greatest naval power in the world, Great Britain, in a conflict that would have an immense impact on the young country’s future. Causes of the war included British attempts to restrict U.S. trade, the Royal Navy’s impressment of American seamen and America’s desire to expand its territory. The United States suffered many costly defeats at the hands of British, Canadian and Native American troops over the course of the War of 1812, including the capture and burning of the nation’s capital, Washington, D.C., in August 1814. Nonetheless, American troops were able to repulse British invasions in New York, Baltimore and New Orleans, boosting national confidence and fostering a new spirit of patriotism. The ratification of the Treaty of Ghent on February 17, 1815, ended the war but left many of the most contentious questions unresolved.
Anglo-American Convention-British and American diplomats meet at the Anglo-American Convention and conclude a treaty resolving some, but not all, of the outstanding issues from the War of 1812. The nations agree on a northern border of the Louisiana Purchase, fixed at the 49th parallel, from the Lake of the Woods to the Rocky Mountains. Britain also acknowledges U.S. fishing rights off Newfoundland and provides compensation for slaves who fled to British lines.
The Transcontinental Treaty- The Transcontinental Treaty, also known as the Adams-Onis treaty, is resolved in February after the conclusion of negotiations dating back to July 1818. The treaty transfers the Floridas from Spain to the United States for $5 million, and advances the U.S. border across Mexico to the Pacific Ocean.
Monroe Doctrine- On December 2, 1823, President James Monroe formally articulated a foreign policy position that became known as the “Monroe Doctrine.” The Monroe Doctrine was one of the most influential foreign policy statements made by an American President and it remained a touchstone of American foreign policy into the twentieth century.