Southern Africa Pages 377-396

Lesson 1- Physical Geography of South Africa
Landforms and Bodies of Water
Landforms
  1. There is a high series of plateaus that range from 3,000 feet to 6,000 feet in Southern Africa.
  2. The Kalahari Desert is a vast sand-covered plateau that sits 3,00 feet above sea level and bordered by higher plateaus.
  3. The Great Escarpment follows the Southern Africa
Bodies of water
  1. The Zambezi River is the regions longest river
  2. The Orange River is South Africa's second-longest river.
  3. The Limpopo River is the third-longest river in the region.
Which type of land form is common in South Africa?

Plateaus are the most common land forms in the South African region.

Climate

Tropical zone-

  • Northern Angola and northern Mozambique have a tropical wet-dry climate
  • Both areas get as much as 70 inches of rain per year
  • Most of this rain falls in spring, summer, and fall--from October to May
  • The daily temperatures average from the upper 60s to the upper 70s
  • Also parts Angola and Mozambique are semi arid
  • In semi arid areas the rain season is a lot shorter
  • The temperatures are also slightly cooler
this is rain because the climates that I just talked about had lots of rain

Temperate zones

  1. Much of South Africa, central Namibia, eastern Botswana, and southern Mozambique have temperate, or moderate, climates that are not marked by extremes of temperature.
  2. Lesotho, Swaziland, and eastern South Africa, including the Indian Ocean coastline, are much more rainy and wet.
Desert Regions
  1. Western South Africa, western Namibia, and much of Botswana are arid.
  2. Along the coast, Namibia gets very little rain.
Why are temperatures in Southern Africa's tropical countries generally not hot?

They are far away from the equator.

This is south africa
Natural Resources
What natural resources are found in Southern Africa, and why are they important?

Southern Africa is one of the World's largest miners of platinum, chromium, gold, and diamonds. There are also important deposits of coal, iron ore, uranium, and copper. They make the region one of the most mineral rich areas in the world.

South Africa's Resources
  1. The Republic of South Africa has some of the largest mineral reserves in the world.
  2. It is the world's largest producer of platinum, chromium, and gold, and one of the largest producers of diamonds.
Energy Resources
  1. The Republic of South Africa, Zimbabwe, Botswana, and Mozambique mine and burn coal from their own deposits to produce most of their electric power.
  2. Mozambique has large deposits of natural gas as well, as does Angola.
Minerals and Other Resources
  1. Namibia is an important producer of tin, zinc, copper, gold, silver, and uranium.
  2. It also ranks with South Africa and Botswana as a leading world supplier of diamonds.
Wildlife
  1. South Africa is know for its variety of animal life which includes wildebeests, lions, zebras, giraffes, and many other animals are found across the region.
How does deforestation affect the energy supply in the region?

Trees release water vapor in the air which then turn the rain and then that feeds hydroelectric power stations.

Lesson 2- History of South Africa
Rise of Kingdoms
  1. Southern Africa's indigenous people have inhabited the region for thousands of years.
Great Zimbabwe
  1. Around the year A.D. 900, the Shona people built a wealthy and powerful kingdom in what is now Zimbabwe and Mozambique
  2. The capital city was called Great Zimbabwe.
Mutapa Empire
  1. In the late 1400s, the Shona conquered the region between Zambezi and Limpopo rivers from Zimbabwe to the coast of Mozambique.
  2. Like Great Zimbabwe, the Mutapa empire thrived on the gold it mined and traded for goods from China and India.
Other Kingdoms
  1. The Zulu leader Shaka united his people in the early 1800s to form the Zulu Empire in what is now South Africa.
  2. He built a powerful army and used it to expand the empire by conquering neighboring people.
The zulu empire is green. Sorry its blurry.
European Colonies
  1. Around 1500, Portugal and other European countries began establishing settlements along the African coast.
Clashes in South Africa
  1. During the 1600s till about the 1800s, Europeans set up trading posts but did not establish colonies, which are territories with settlers from the home country.
The Union of South Africa
  1. Wars in Europe gave Britain control of the Cape Colony in the early 1800s.
Colonialism in Other Areas
  1. While the British and the Boers competed for South Africa, other European countries were competing over the rest of Africa.
Which European country claimed the most territory in Southern Africa in the 1800s?

Answer- Britain

Independence and Equal Rights
  1. French rule in Madagascar ended in 1960, making it the first Southern African country to gain independence.
The End of Portuguese Rule
  1. While other European nations gave up their African colonies, Portugal refused to do so.
The Birth of Zimbabwe
  1. After granting Malawi and Zambia independence, Britain prepared to free neighboring Zimbabwe, then called Southern Rhodesia.
Equal Rights in South Africa
  1. After independence, the growth of Africa's mining and other industries depended on the labor of black Africans, who greatly outnumbered the country's whites.
  2. The white minority government stayed in power by limiting the black population's educational and economic opportunities and political rights.
  3. English South Africans controlled the government until the end of World War 2.
Lesson 3- Life in South Africa
People of the Region
  1. The population of Southern Africa is overwhelmingly black African.
Population Patterns
  1. Southern Africa's countries vary widely in population.
  2. Fewer than 2 million people live in the small countries of Lesotho and Swaziland.
  3. South Africa, which surrounds both of them, has the regions largest population- about 49 million.
Ethnic and Culture Groups
  1. Africans are not a single people.
  2. Southern Africa is home to many ethnic and cultural groups who speak several different languages.
  3. One group, the Shona, makes up more than 80 percent of the population of the country of Zimbabwe.
Religion and Languages
  1. Southern Africa's colonial past has also influenced it's people's religious beliefs.
  2. In almost every country, most of the people are Christians.
Questions- What is the main religion practiced on Southern Africa?

Answer- Christianity

Life in Southern Africa
  1. As in other regions of Africa, life differs from city to countryside.
Urban life
  1. Although most people in the region of Southern Africa live in the countryside, migration to cities grows because of job opportunities.
Urban Growth and Change
  1. The rapid growth of some cities has strained public utilities.
  2. Luanda, for example, has had many problems providing enough clean water for it's many people.
  3. Outbreaks of cholera and other diseases have resulted from drinking polluted water.
Family and Traditional Life
  1. People who move to the cities mus adjust to new experiences and a different way of life.
  2. In the countryside, traditional ways of life remain strong.
Question- Where in their countries do most Southern Africans live?

Answer- In cities

Southern Africa Today
  1. Southern Africa's wealth of mineral, wildlife, and other resources may be the key to its future.
Health Issues
  1. Life expectancy in Southern Africa is low.
Disease
  1. Malaria, a tropical disease carried by mosquitoes, is a problem in several countries.
  2. Dysentery and cholera, potentially fatal diseases caused by bacteria in water, are also widespread.
  3. Malnutrition is a cause of death for many infants and young children.
Progress and Growth
  1. Angola and Mozambique continue to rebuild cities and towns, industries, railroads, and communications systems that have been damaged or destroyed by years of civil war.
  2. Oil exports in Angola and aluminum exports in Mozambique help finance this effort.
Help From Other Countries
  1. The United States has used economic aid to strengthen democracy in Southern Africa.
  2. Other U.S. programs have provided billions of dollars to pay for medications and care for AIDS sufferers and AIDS orphans.
Question- Why is life expectancy in Southern Africa so low?

Answer- There is lots of diseases.

Credits:

Created with images by ralph_rybak - "africa twilight botswana" • Richard Allaway - "Kings Wall, Fall Bay, Gower, South Wales, UK" • Pok_Rie - "wave water ocean" • wongaboo - "Plateau" • woodleywonderworks - "dangerous driving in the rain + tips" • SEDACMaps - "Climate Zones, Scenario A1F1 2001 - 2025, South America" • Bine Rodenberger - "Oasis Desert Nights" • Rodriago - "Quarzo" • Lateral Support - "coal" • Agnali - "copper money container" • AjayLalu - "zebra wildlife africa" • Boston Public Library - "The only way to secure lasting peace. [front]" • rosshuggett - "untitled image"

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