Reconstruction In Texas By: Harper Sharpe

Reconstruction Begins!

The War has left the South in ruins, they have many freed slaves, no money, and they are very racist. Reconstruction is needed to bring back the southern states from their previous low. Reconstruction will let the South come back to the states free of slavery.

Two Different Plans

After the civil war had ended our Lincoln had a plan for gradually integrating the new policies in the South. He said that at least 10 percent of states population had to say that they were with the union and against slavery, and then the state would be let back in. But alas, our poor Abe was shot and killed by John Wilkes Booth. Our new president, President Johnson is a lot stricter that Lincoln. his plan is modeled after Lincoln's but has some major differences. Johnson's plan is to set up provisional government in all Southern states until the state was readmitted to the Union. Most southerners also have to take an oath.


End of Slavery in Texas!

On June 19, 1865, a large Union force commanded by Gordon Granger came to Texas to free slaves. He first announced the Emancipation Proclamation to the people of Galveston. The news spread slowly but eventually almost all of the state's 250,000 slaves were free. That day on June 19, there were many celebrations among the freed people. Many call this day Juneteenth. Because they were not allowed to learn to read or write a group was formed, called the Freedman's Bureau, to make schools for African Americans.

New Texas Governor

President Johnson had tried to appoint Unionists to office so, he appointed Andrew Hamilton as Governor of Texas. He had been against the war so he seemed like a good idea. Nevertheless, he continued to be racist and at the convention to write the constitution of 1866, only former Confederates were present.

A Constitution in Texas

Instead of rewriting a constitution the ex-Confederates merely amended the previous one. They did, in fact, nullify their secession and abolish slavery, but thats about it. They adopted "Black Codes" which restricted the rights of freed people. The "codes" said that black people couldn't vote, hold office, or serve on jury.

Congress Takes Controll

Many Northern leaders insist that the Southern States have to reapply to America. Almost everywhere in the South, former Confederates are in office. They attacked Johnson's plan for being too easy on the South. The Radical Republicans want tougher requirements for them to be readmitted to the states. They have a two-thirds vote against Johnson so they can overrule his veto.

Radical Reconstruction Begins

Congress's plan was harsher than any other plan.They divided up the states into five districts. The military would rule over the districts until they met requirements. They also have to take what is called an Ironclad Oath. the oath pledged that the individual had not voluntarily served in the Confederacy.

Freedmen Get the Vote!

The Freedmen's Bureau and and organization, called the Union League, work together together to help freedmen get registered to vote. Together they have registered almost 50,000 freedmen. Some whites tried to stop the freedmen from exercising their rights, by joining the Ku Klux Klan (KKK). They have burnt down three freedmen's homes in the past four days. But, they don't only attack freedmen, they also oppose people who help the reconstruction like carpetbaggers, Northerners who moved to the South to help, and scalawags, who were white southerners who supported reconstruction.

Reconstruction Ends!

Reconstruction ended in March of 1870. However, many white southerners are not happy that black people get to have equal right with them. After reconstruction many of the former slaves lived in rural areas. And some work on the same plantation just for pay. But, in 1872 the Democrats take control of the state again, and this has been the long lasting effect.


Created with images by ChristopherPluta - "old newspaper newspaper the 1960s" • Rusty Clark ~ 100K Photos - "Civil War" • ralphrepo - "Ulysses S. Grant & Li Hung Chang, Tientsin, China [1879] Attribution Unk [RESTORED]" • Boston Public Library - "Re-Union on the Secesh-Democratic Plan" • tpsdave - "san francisco california city" • TexasExplorer98 - "Brownson's Bank, Victoria, Texas Historical Marker" • m01229 - "Library of Congress" • Boston Public Library - "Fate of the radical party" • hjl - "Vote!" • MAKY_OREL - "old house dingy house urbex"

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