Spain fue an ancient pitstop. It was a place to trade, repair damage, and refuel with food.
Iberos inhabited the eastern land of Spain, while the Celtas inhabited the western part. Because of their powerful military, Rome expandió and grew. In 409 AD, the Imperio Romano colapsado.
Continual and constant fight between the Cristianos and Musulmáns. Rome says Jesus will come to rescue them. Everyone was to be Christian. Fake Christians would claim to believe in Jesus publicly, but at home they would practice Muslim beliefs. There are still influences of Jews, Christians, and Muslims today.
Reyes Catolicos were uniting the Christian kingdoms against the Moors. The kings solidificaron their power through religion and military success. The Reconquista was ended by the king by defeating the Moors in Granada in 1492. In 1492, last Moorish king defeated, all Muslims remaining in Spain forzado to leave or convert to Christianity. In 1502, with the success, it is decided all Jews need to convert to Christianity. To know the people convertido, they would be punished and tortured.
Gold diggers casaron for and power. "La Loca" was what the people called Juana, the daughter of Ferdinand and Isabel and a gold digger. Juana's son Carlos V became known as the Guerrero de la Carretera. Under his rule, the Spanish empire grew rapidly and Spain became one of the staunchest defenders of Catholicism. Carlos usó the funds that were pouring in from the colonies to subsidize the many religious wars he was fighting across Europe. He pasó the legacy to his son Felipe.
In 1554, Felipe married Mary Tudor of England in an attempt to create an international Catholic alianza. A male heredero from this marriage would have become King of England, however, there was no son and the Protestant Elizabeth I vino to power in England. Spain anexó Portugal.
The Black Leyenda: to get revenge on Spain, England and Portugal se había extendido propaganda about Spain. "Spain is the sewer of the world, rats live in buildings, the king eats children, etc."
El Greco is a painter from Greece who wanted pintar for Felipe. Felipe disliked the painter's style, so Felipe rechazó him. El Greco paints pictures that mock Felipe and his poder.
Felipe's son, Carlos, had no hijos because the women did not want to marry someone crazy. Now there was no heir. War of Spanish succession pitted royal families and their nations against each other to see who would rule Spain. Felipe V, the Bourbon grandson of Louis XIV, becomes King of Spain. The Bourbon family remains the royal family of Spain today. The Bourbons were competent gobernantes, but were more concerned with life at court.
Rebellion of 2 May 1808 in Madrid begins War of Spanish Independence. Joseph Bonaparte removed from the trono of Spain in 1812. During the upheaval, most of the colonies in America gain independencia. Constitution of 1812 establishes a parliamentary monarquía.
Fernando VII is son of Carlos IV, returns from exile in France to rule after defeat of Napoleon's troops. He estableció a totalitarian rule, constantly at odds with liberals who wanted to expand on Constitution of 1812. When Fernando died he left only his daughter Isabel.
The country is divided on the issue of a regla de la mujer. Supporters of Fernando’s brother, Carlos face off against more liberal supporters of Isabel in several “Guerras Carlistas." Isabel II rules through political turmoil, with the Carlists continually opposing her autoridad. In 1868, the “Glorious Revolution” removed Isabel II from power.
A short-lived experimento places King Amadeo of Saboya, an Italian, on the throne from 1870-1873. The first Spanish Republic is proclaimed in 1873 and ends in 1874.
The Bourbons return to the throne with the reign of Alfonso XII from 1875- 1885, followed by his son Alfonso XIII from 1902-1931. In typical Bourbon fashion, Spain quickly begins a downslide, marked by the loss of it last remaining colonies in 1898 and embarrassing military derrotas in Morocco.
Alfonso XIII Unable to put a stop to the political tensión and low morale of the country. Alfonso XIII allows a military general to establish a dictatorship from 1923-1931. The dictatorship is unable to solve the problems of the country.
The Second Republic of Spain is established in 1931, ushering in an era of hope and optimism. They set up a new, progressive constitution, which gives women the right to vote, allows divorce, separates the Church from the State, and creates public schools. It creates a deeper political and social divide. The upper class, military, and church think there are too many. On the other hand, Socialists and Communists communities think they are not enough changes.
General Francisco Franco stages a military revolt in 1936, which began the Civil War. Franco’s fascist troops are aided by forces from Germany and Italy, while the Republicans got hardly any help. War ends in 1939, with Franco’s Nationalist forces winning.
Francisco was the Fascist dictator of Spain from 1939 until his death in 1975. He idealized “glory years” of Spain under Carlos V and Felipe II. Those who went against his permission were killed.
Basque terrorists group ETA assassinates Franco’s chosen successor. Grandson of Alfonso XIII is chosen by Franco to be his successor. Upon Franco’s death in 1975, Juan Carlos I de Borbon became King of Spain. Juan Carlos declared democracy in Spain and began period called Transition.
In 1978, Adolfo Suarez is elected in the first elections held in Spain since 1936. In the 80’s Felipe Gonzalez lead Spain out of isolation, joining NATO and EU. Jose Maria Aznar increases Spain’s influence in world, with a growing economy and a strong alliance with the USA.
On March 11, 2004, Islamic fundamentalist terrorists place bombas on several commuter trenes in Madrid, killing nearly 200 and injuring over 2000. Two days after the attack, elections proclaim Jose Luis Rodriguez Zapatero the new Prime Minister of Spain. His first action, as promised, was to withdraw Spanish troops from the US war with Iraq. Under his government, Spain joined several other European nations in legalizing same-sex marriages.
As a parliamentary monarchy, Spain retains its royal family, although all government decisions are handled by Parliament and the Presidente of the Gobierno.