World War I By: Mark Ordner

Vienna

What caused the First World War? Besides the assignation of Archduke Ferdinand heir to the throne of Austria-Hungary, there were boiling tempers going across Europe. Militarism, lmperialism, and Nationalism were factor for these tempers.

Dreadnought

Militarism and nationalism created tension before the war with a competition in the arms race, who could have a better and bigger army.

Archduke Ferdinand assassination

From the assassination a series of events exploded over Europe which stem from previous hatred of each other.

Germany who support Austria-Hungary presented the unfortunate Serbia with an ultimatum, but Serbia resorted back to Russia who would not recognize any wrong doing

Russia began to mobilize troops toward Germany while the tsar's ally on the west, France, did the same thing.

Mobilization

Germany did not appreciate the French's threat and lashed out on the them by going through neutral Belgium.

Great Britain and France had always been rivals when they competed with one another when claiming new territories for their empire. This rival withheld Great Britain from entering the was immediately

Germans attack on Belgium brought the once "conflicted" Great Britain on the French side, once a major competitor, because of its "sworn protection over Belgium, which was ignored by Germany.

Map of Europe WWI

At the end of the chain reaction Germany, Austria-Hungary, And later Bulgaria and Turkey faced off with the allied powers: France, Britain, and Russia, and later Japan and Italy.

Trench warfare

America was a neutral country during WWI, and found an economic boost from it. This boost was financed by Wall Streets JP Morgan.

New York City

Germany did not find it fair that the United States was trading the allied powers. Germany was at a disadvantage with their ability to trade the U.S. Because of their geographic position and Britains strategic naval blockade.

Germany retaliated from this by engaging in a new form of naval warfare with their u-boats, German submarines.

German u-boat

Germany's new weapon had taking out civilian ships, some carrying American passengers.

Germany really struck a nerve with president Wilson when they sunk a French passenger boat. Wilson wanted Germany to stop practicing inhuman actions or he would revoke diplomatic relations

Great Britain also aggravated the United States by "stealing" some of their ship used for trading.

The U.S. was facing problems from both the allied and central powers. Both which intrigued the U.S. to enter the war.

Once America got into the war some of their soldiers were coined the term "Doughboy." Doughboy was an informal term for a member of the United States Army or Marine Corps, especially used to refer to members of the American Expeditionary Forces in World War I

Doughboys

American soldiers when drafted were young men, 18-23 years old. They were looking toward training in America for 6 months plus 2 more months over seas before they so action. But most were dropped in right into the battlefield with little to know experience with firearms.

During the war the Battle of Verdun, it presented a symbolic value for both sides as it was deep in political history for the two sides.

Germany had implicated one of the largest preparations for the Battle of Verdun with mass amounts of equipment and men

During the battle Germany seized Fort Douaumont with out firing a shot.

Fort Douaumont

Due to a lack of secure railways and constant enemy bombardments, the French were forced to rely on a lone, 20-foot-wide road to supply their stand at Verdun.

During just one week of operations, more than 190,000 French troops and 25,000 tons of munitions, food and supplies were ferried to the front.

General Petain used the road to rotate more than 40 divisions in and out of the Verdun sector, which kept the French troops fresh and helped combat the effects of shell shock.

“La Voie Sacrée” (“the Sacred Way”)

Back in the United States women took over the labor force since most of the men were fighting in the war.

Everyone was impacted from the war from food rations to raw materials.

And patriotism was being personified from over a million African Americans fighting in the war effort (soldiers to factory workers).

Major Provisions of the Treaty of Versailles, were to punish Germany

Germany was required to admit total blame for starting World War I.

Germany was required to pay for the total cost of World War I, including homes and factories destroyed; ammunition; uniforms; and pensions for Allied soldiers. Allied leadcrs could not agree on a total amount or a timeline for payment. When the treaty was signed, estimates for reparations (repayment for war damages) were as high as $300 biIlion.

Germany's armies were limited in size, and the German naval fleet was turned over to the Allies.

Treaty of Versailles

Germany's colonial possessions were divided among the Allies. France gained control of the German border region of Alsace-]Lorraine, mining rights in the Saar, occupation rights in the Rhineland for 15 years, and supervisory control over some German territories in the Middle East, Britain was granted a mandate-ontrol but not possession--over some Geman-controlled territory In the Middle East. Italy gained control over the southern Tyrol, a region i n the Alps inhabited by 200,000 Germans. Japan was granted a mandate over German colonies in the Pacific and Asia, including China's Shandong province.

From Wilsons fourteen points his ultimate goal was to create a world parliament known as the League of Nations

The League of Nations was to rule and world issues and prevent another world war. The league was run by the allied powers: Great Britain, France, Italy and Belgium. The U.S. did not joined which factored in its overall failure.

All of these outcomes stem from the allied powers winning the war

Facts about the war.

8 million soldiers died along with 9 million civilians

Austria-Hungary, Germany's ally in World War I, was divided into four independent nations: Austria, Hungary, Yugoslavia, and Czechoslovakia.

Five other independent nations were established along Germany's border with the Soviet Union to prevent the spread of communism: Poland, FinIand, Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania.

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