Terms of the Civils of the Rights By: Nadia Rios and Shranav palakurthi

Dred Scott Decision (1857) - Slave Dred Scott traveled to a free state, which he said he was free, because he was in a free state, but Chief Justice Roger Taney said he was not free because he was still property of his owner. Taney ruled that slaves would never have citizenship.
The Emancipation Proclamation (1863) - Declaration by Abraham Lincoln that says all slaves were free in confederate states, but did not work because Lincoln had no power over the confederate states. This was a turning point in the Civil War.
13th Amendment (1865) - The 13th amendment was ratified by 27 out the 36 states. 13th amendment illegalizes and prohibits slavery and canceled out any older laws promoting slavery.
14th Amendment (1868) - The Dred Scott decision, the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court said that no slaves will ever be citizens. The 14th amendment changed this and gave immigrants birthright citizenship.
15th Amendment (1870) - Before 1870, Africans Americans were not allowed to vote. 15th amendment gives citizens of all races right to vote, and prohibits anyone denying a citizen the right to vote based on their race.
Plessy vs. Ferguson (1896) - Supreme court case in which ruled segregation ok if African Americans are given equal accommodations as whites.This meant that there would be separate water fountains, medical care, etc.
Brown vs. Board of Education (1954) - The NAACP argued against school segregation in the Supreme Court, and then segregated schools improved, but still, segregated schools were still segregated, and NAACP urged school desegregation. The Supreme Court allowed black students to attend white schools.
The Montgomery Bus Boycott (1955-56) - After the Rosa Parks was arrested for the bus incident, over 40,000 African American bus riders stopped using buses for over a year after Rosa Parks was held for trial for her not giving up her seat to a white man.
Little Rock Nine (1957)- Even though the Supreme court said that segregation in public schools was unconstitutional, the schools were still separate. Schools still did not allow blacks to attend their school. A group of 9 African-American students who got into Little Rock high school after being prevented to attend the segregated school by the governor of Arkansas.
Sit In (1960) - a. A protest when people stay in a place until their demands are met. Protest in which people sat in white only restaurants and waited until their food came. On February 1st 1960, the Greansbro sit-in took place. 4 black students sat in an all-white counter, where they were refused service. other people were inspired by this and sit-ins around the country
Ruby Bridges (1960) - New Orleans schools were still segregated in 1960. First African-American student to attend an all-white public school, who were escorted by federal marshals. Ruby went on to graduate high school and college.
Freedom Riders (1961) - 13 people who protested segregation in bus terminals by traveling on a bus to different terminals, and used “white only” services. They were of all races. The ICC later prohibited segregation in bus terminals.
James Meredith (1962) - James Meredith tried to enroll at the University of Mississippi which was turned down, the supreme court ruled that he could attend, but he was blocked out when he arrived. He was later able to get a degree in political science.
"I Have A Dream" Speech (1953) - MLK’s most renowned speech, and one of his most effective which he presented to over 250K people as part of the March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom. He called on citizens to end racism, and the president passed laws to end racism.


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