Meiosis and Genetic Variation By Quinton and Ian

Gregor Mendel was dubbed as the “Father of Genetics” because he was the first to experiment genetics and heredity.
Genetics is known as the study of the physical and mental characteristics that are passed down through sexual reproduction.
Heredity is the passing of physical and mental characteristics that are passed down through sexual reproduction.
A gene is a basic unit of heredity found within DNA. It also contains genetic material.
An allele is a subunit of the passing of traits and if you put two alleles together you get a single gene. For each trait received from each parent is represented by an allele.
Dominant is an allele or gene that is shown more easily than a non dominate. A recessive allele is present if the dominant allele is not present.
Homozygous is when two genes have either two dominant or two recessive. Heterozygous is the term used for a gene that possesses both a recessive and a dominant allele.
A genotype is a particular genetic trait. A phenotype is the physical traces of a trait that was passed down through reproduction.
Monohybrid is the term used for the act of cross-breeding to select a single desirable trait.
Dihybrid is cross-breeding in order to select two traits.
Mendel’s Principle of Dominance states that even if recessive alleles are not displayed, does not mean that they are not present, and can be used to show the next generation/ offspring’s traits if the recessive alleles are combined with other recessive alleles.
A Punnett Square is a tool of four boxes that are used to estimate the possible genotypes and phenotypes that the offspring might possess based on the traits that the parent’s possess.
Incomplete dominance occurs when there are multiple dominant genes and causes traits to blend.
Codominance is when there is a sharp contrast in appearance, either it be color or variation, through an organism due to both alleles contributing equally to the phenotype.
The sex chromosome is the 23rd chromosome in human DNA, and determines the gender of the not-yet-born infant. For example, an XX combo results in a female infant, and an XY results in a male infant.
Autosomes are the 1-22 chromosomes in human DNA.
A carrier is an organism that was not born with a disease or genetic disorder but has the possibility of passing the disorder to its offspring.
A sex-linked trait is a trait that is passed to the offspring via the X or Y chromosome. This is why male organisms show their sex-linked traits more often than female organisms.
A karyotype is a chromosomal outline of a person.
Pedigree is a chart that helps with finding the traits that were passed down from generation to generation.
Epigenome is the genetic information that serves as an "out layer" in a person's DNA.
Blood type is based on a type of protein that is present in the red blood cells. Blood Types: A,B,AB,O -Rhesus factor is another type of protein. Only (+)positive, and (-)negative Rhesus factors. Blood types could be either: A+, A-, B+, B-, AB+, AB-, O+, or O-. There are Homozygous and Heterozygous genes for blood typing.

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