Europe after WWI by christina lokken

Treaty of Versailles

The Treaty of Versailles is the peace treaty created in 1919, and signed by the allies and Germany. The allies decided Germany had to give up territories to other countries, and admit they started the war. Because territories had to be given up, the borders changed. Also, the Soviet had to give up some territories, and with this, a bunch of new countries were created, as well as dissolved. Another new condition was that Germany wasn't allowed to have an army over 115000 men, including marine. They also had to get rid of their submarines, air-crafts, and tanks.

This is a 1000 German mark bill.

Another condition in the Versailles Treaty was that Germany had to pay 132 billion gold marks ( $33 billion) to the allies. Germany had spent so much money on warfare that the only way they would be able to pay off the debt was is they printed huge amounts of money. This lead to inflation. The inflation affected the Germans very badly. One mark became less and less worth as more and more money got printed. This was especially bad for those who had saved up money for years, because within a short period of time, the money was worth nothing. Also for workers who got paid by the hour, the money they had earned was no longer worth anything at the end of the day, because the worth of money decreased so fast. For example, in the fall of 1923, a loaf of bread cost 200,000,000,000 marks. In addition to that, the Kaiser during WWI, sold war bonds instead rather than increasing taxes. This lead to Germany having an even higher debt to pay off. With the Dawes plan, Germany could loan money from the U.S. This money was used on the German infrastructure. This was in ways good for Germany, because the infrastructure got improved, however it was also bad because it made Germany dependent on the american economy. If the american economy went bad, it had consequences for Germany as well. The Dawes plan continued until the Great Depression in America broke out.

Statistics that sets a perspective on how bad the german inflation was.
Children protesting.

Economy across the world. The world economy was highly affected by the war. World war 1, costed the U.S. $32 billion. Because the U.S. were neutral at the beginning of the war, and Europe bought goods from America, this money helped them pay the costs from the war. After the war, the economy in Europe was really bad. Many countries had huge debts to pay off. In America, the economy flourished. The sitting president, Herbert Hoover thought the economy was so good that it would finally end poverty in America. That's when all the stock markets crashed and the economy went downhill. What is referred to as The Great Depression broke out, and lasted a decade. The U.S. couldn't help out war-torn Europe anymore.

Italy to the left, with the former Yugoslavia in colors. This was their flag.

In Europe, many countries dissolved and new nations were formed. Many national groups came together and created their own country. Czechoslovakia, became Czech republic and Slovakia. Austria-Hungary became Austria and Hungary. Yugoslavia dissolved and is now part of six new countries that developed as a result of WWI. Europe today consists of 44 countries, while it only consisted of 23 before WWI.

This is what the former Czechoslovakia looked like. It dissolved into Czech republic, and Slovakia.

The flu pandemic, also known as the Spanish flu, broke out spring of 1918 in a military camp in Kansas. It spread fast, first to France and the rest of Europe the coming summer, and by July 1918, the flu had spread to every single continent in the world. It continued on and off until 1920. The disease decreased life expectancy by about 12 years. Back in the 1920s, the world population was about 5,4 billion, and about ⅓ (1.8 billion) of the population were killed by the flu. It spread with cough and sneezing, which made it easily spreadable, and hard to avoid. The flu pandemic is marked as one of the deadliest natural diseases in the world.

Along with many deaths from the war, and even more deaths from the flu pandemic, the population in Europe and the U.S. had decreased significantly. Those who survived are called the lost generation because they never really recovered fully from what they had gone through. In Britain, there were almost 2 million more women than men, which meant that many women didn't get married. Also, 35% of the women that did get married got married in an age where they were unable to become pregnant. All of this together meant that it would take a long time to get back to the population number they used to have.

Poster that wanted women to vote for the democrats to help end the war.

Some positive results from the first world war was that many women received suffrage. Before the war, it was normal for women to work in the home, cook, clean and take care of the children. When the war began, women had to take over many "male" jobs, and they proved they could do just as good. So as a result many countries gave women the right to vote, like the U.S. and also Britain. This promoted gender equality.

Sources: https://snl.no/Versailles-traktaten http://www.nber.org/digest/jan05/w10580.html http://www.theholocaustexplained.org/ks4/the-nazi-rise-to-power/was-the-economy-doomed-to-fail/#.WFFtROArLnA https://no.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ettervirkningene_av_f%C3%B8rste_verdenskrig

Created By
Nora Lokken
Appreciate

Credits:

Created with images by 2211438 - "paper money banknote bank note" • WonderWhy7439 - "Yugoslavia" • flickr.annieandrew - "DSCN1560" • Mike Licht, NotionsCapital.com - "Women Vote"

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