Biotechnology By:Julie Schoebel

Cloning is the process of generating a genetically identical copy of a cell or an organism. Cloning is currently used now to create animals with similar traits. Cloning first took place in Germany during the 1900s. Human Reproductive cloning remains condemned because of psychological,social, and psysiological risk associated with cloning. Due to 100 failed attempts in 2007, a pregnancy is not guaranteed. There is also controversy over the ethics of therapeutic and research cloning.
People believe therapeutic cloning is destruction of a human life. Benefits of cloning are that they have created a multitude of useful livestock. However the birth of a viable clone has not been achieved. To transfer a certain section of DNA they need, technology is used to make multiple copies of a gene. The human genome is used to know what DNA strands to clone.
A GMO is an organism whose genome has been engineered in a laboratory to favor the expression of desired traits. This term is most commonly known for food. GMOs are currently being used in agriculture, medicine, and research. Ethical issues referring to the use and consumption of GMOs goes back to how people believe they are unhealthy for ones' body to consume. However, using GMOs helps us produce more crops and gives plants not only more but better resistance.
Recombinant genetic technologies are used to produce organisms whose genomes have been precisely altered at the molecular level, usually by the inclusion of genes from unrelated species of organisms. Knowing the human genome helps them know what GMOs would benefit us more and what is needed more than others.
Stem cells are an undifferentiated cell that can divide to produce some offspring cells that continue as stem cells and some cells that are destined to differentiate. Embryonic stem cells are stem cells derived from the inner mass at a very early stage of development whereas adult stem cells don't. Stem cells are always in use for both. Stem cells are used to create tissue, bone marrow, and everything in an adult body. However there are ethical issues concerning embryonic stem cell research.
Embryos in the blastocyst stage are destroyed in the process of obtaining stem cells. People who consider preimplantation human embryos to be human beings generally believe such work is wrong. Benefits are that stem cells have the chance of replacing defective or damaged cells resulting from a variety of disorders and injuries. Technology to create stem cells first started with mice and creating mouse embryonic cells. Knowing the human genome helps know which stem cell the person needs most, so that they can create it.
DNA finger printing, also called DNA typing and profiling. It is a method of isolating and identifying variable elements within the base-pair sequence of DNA. It is currently used in crime scene investigation and getting better everyday. They are able to trace a persons finger print to solve crimes and to determine paternity. There are currently no ethical issues concerning this because it is only used when needed and is always only for a good cause. Like for example, locating a criminal.
Problems with this is that some thing may alter it, like if a print wasn't present enough for the whole thing. However a benefit is that everyone's finger print is unique, so once they have yours. No one else can pass for that finger print. Technology is used to create this once it obtains any sort of DNA from that particular person. The DNA is then extracted from the cells and purified. It's then cut at specific points along the restriction enzymes. Knowing the human genome is needed for this because everyone's DNA is unique. You're the only one with it.
A paternity kit is used to determine the likely hood that a man is the father of a particular child. It is currently used now everywhere. Ethical issues only concern of forbidding the unauthorized collecting of biological samples. Benefits are of course how they can tell if you are related to the child, however the problem is that they aren't always correct. Technology is used to test the DNA and compare it to the fathers. Knowing the human genome is needed to be able to compare the DNA strands.
PCR, polymerase chain reaction. A technique used to make numerous copies of a specific segment of DNA quickly and accurately. It is currently used now, enables investigators to obtain large quantities of DNA that are required for various experiments and procedures. As of now, there are no ethical issues involved. Benefits is that it can be used to diagnose genetic disease and to detect low levels of viral infection. Problems is that it isn't stable at the high nature needed for denaturation. Technology is used to copy every strand exactly as it is quickly. Knowing the human genome helps create these.
Gel electrophoresis is used to separate molecules of DNA, RNA, or protein based on the basis of their size or electric charge. It is currently used now is DNA finger printing and the detection of genetic variants and proteins involved in health and disease as well as in the detection and purification of nucleic acids and proteins for reasearch. As of now there are no ethical issues involved. Benefits are of course how it can detect so many things. Technology is used to make the gel needed to separate molecules. Knowing the human genome is important so you don't separate the wrong ones.
Plasmids are a genetic element that occur in many bacterial strains. Recombinant DNA is the joining together of DNA molecules from two different species that are inserted into a host organism to produce new genetic combinations that are of value to science, medicine, agriculture, and industry. Both are currently being used now. Currently there are no ethical issues concerning this topic. The benefits for these two things include assisting the moving along with cloning. Technology helps DNA recombine. Knowing the human genome is useful so they know what combines with what.

"Cloning." Britannica School, Encyclopædia Britannica, 27 Oct. 2015

Genetically modified organism (GMO)." Britannica School, Encyclopædia Britannica, 24 Aug. 2015.

"Stem cell." Britannica School, Encyclopædia Britannica, 8 Mar. 2016. Accessed 29 Mar. 2017.

DNA fingerprinting." Britannica School, Encyclopædia Britannica, 12 Dec. 2014. Accessed 29 Mar. 2017.

Polymerase chain reaction." Britannica School, Encyclopædia Britannica, 3 Feb. 2017.

"Recombinant DNA technology." Britannica School, Encyclopædia Britannica, 28 Aug. 2009. Accessed 29 Mar. 2017.


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