Final Project By: Edwin Garcia



Temperature Vs Heat- Often we think that heat and temperature are the same thing. However, This is not the case. Heat and temperature are related to each other, but are different concepts. Heat Is the total energy of molecular motion in a substance while temperature is a measure of the average energy of molecular motion in a substance.

Laws of thermo- The first law, also known as law of conservation of energy, states that energy cannot be created or destroyed in an isolated system. The second life of thermodynamics states that the entropy of any isolated system always increases.

Calories and specific heat- 4.186 Joule= 1 calories. Another Common energy unit is the calorie. The calorie, Cal, Is defined as the amount of energy (heat) needed to increase the temperature of one gram of water by 1C. The kilocalorie, kcal, equals 1000 small calories



Up cycling vs down cycling- While upcycling and downcycling are both examples of recycling, Not all recycling is considered equal. When we convert Discarded materials into something of equal or greater value, It is "upcycled". When a material or product is "downcycled". It is transformed into something of lesser value.

Types of plastics and issues

  1. Polyethylene Terephthalate - in all the types of plastic, #1 is probably most common. It's also one of the easiest to recycle, as most curbside recycling source pick up type 1. This also means it is the type often used in polyester clothing, recycled fiber carpets, etc . Issues- soil pollution, Digestive issues, lung, heart, liver, and kidney damage.
  2. high density Polyethylene- this plastic is commonly found in milk jugs, plastic bottles, hard hats, water pipes, and plastic lumber .Issues- HDPE is one of the types of plastic that does not contain BPA (bisphenol A) or other commonly found toxic compounds. Because of this and its durability its a much safer plastic in terms of health risks. It is still derived from petroleum, and so secondary health and environmental risks from production of HDPE, as well as the limited amount that gets recycle, are still a big consideration. Because of its widespread use and primary safety, it is a hard one to avoid.
  3. vinyl or polyvinyl chloride- this plastic is commonly found in shower curtains, plastic food wrap, children's toys, pool toys, rafts, etc, fencing, and pipes. Issues- the 3 types of plastic often contain BPA ( or its replacement BPS, which is providing just as dangerous). BPA has been linked to development issues during pregnancy and childhood, linking it to birth defects, and neurological disorders. It's an endocrine disruptor, and also tied to asthma, breast cancer, heart disease, leukemia, prostate cancer and other issues, obesity, testicular cancer, thyroid issues, and more.
  4. Low density polyethylene- this plastic is commonly found in plastic bags, 6 pack rings, tubing, milk cartons, soap containers. Issues- although they are no known human health concerns, LDPE is sourced for fossil fuels and therefore not renewable, as well as not being biodegradable and poses a large issue for the environment since most LDPE (such as plastic bags) do not get recycled. some LDPE, however, is actually made from a renewable source (sugar beat), but while this decreases the reliance on finite resources it doesn't solve the waste problem
  5. Polypropylene- this plastic is commonly found in auto parts, disposable diapers, disposable food containers, industrial fibers, kitchen items, sanitary and menstrual pads. Issues- scientists have found that pp can leach two chemical compounds (quaternary ammonium biocides and oleamide) that interrupt human enzymes and brain receptors. This is one of the types of plastic formerly thought to be safe, and so much more research is needed on polypropylene
  6. polystyrene- this plastic styrofoam is commonly found in disposable knives, fork, spoons, egg cartons, foam cups, food packaging (clamshell), media cases, office supplies,packing peanuts and toys .Issues- Polystyrene contains both styrene and benzene, two dangerous chemical compounds linked to human health risks. Styrene has been showed to be toxic to the nervous system, hematological, cytogenetic, carcinogenic, and disruptive to menstrual cycles. Benzene is a known carinogen, particulary leukemia (cancer of the blood) and linked to anemia, excessive bleeding, and other blood disorders, irregular menstrual cycles, low birth weight, bone marrow damage and more.
  7. Other ( often polcycarbonate)- This plastic is commonly found in 5 gallon reusable bottles, bottles, misc, electrical wiring, and safety glasses. Issues- the #7 types of plastic can be a variety of plastics, making it hard to determine their safety. And according to the environmental working group, it often consists of polycarbonate, the plastic most likely to contain BPA (bisphenol A) which impacts development during pregnancy and childhood, BPA has been linked to neurological disorders, is an endocrine disruptor, and also tied to asthma, breast cancer, heart disease, leukemia, prostate cancer and other issues, obesity, testicular cancer, thyroid tissue,and more.

Recycling metals and paper


  • Recycling 1 tons of paper saves 17 mature trees, 7,000 gallons of water, 3 cubic yards of landfill space, and 2 barrels of oil.


  • Recycling steel and tin cans saves 74% of the energy used to make them from virgin materials.


Soil profiles- This layer generally forms above the mineral soil or occurs in an organic soil profile. The "O" stands for organic matter. It is a surface layer dominated by the presence of large amounts of organic material derived from dead plant and/ or animal residues which is in varying stages of decomposition.

Sand, silt, and clay (soil texture)- The look and feel of a soil is referred to as soil texture and is determined by the size and type of particles that make up the soil (including the organic but mostly referring to the inorganic material).

Sand soils- Sand particles are large= small surface area therefore. Sand drains easily, poor ability to retain moisture. Little chemical activity= little nutrient bonding

Silt soils- Silt particles= limited area surface. Little chemical activity, little nutrient bonding. May compact under heavy traffic, poor air and water movement.

Clay soils- Clay particles are small, large surface area therefore. Water adheres very well to clay, High ability to obtain moisture (however this water can be hard even impossible for the plant to use) very chemically active, good nutrient bonding.

Issues with soil and soil properties

Soil properties- All soil contain mineral particles, organic matter, water and air. the combinations of these determine the soil's properties, its texture, structure, porosity, chemistry, and color.

Issues with soil- Half of the topsoil on the planet has been lost in the last 150 years. In addition to erosion, soil quality is affected by other aspects of agriculture. These impacts include compaction, loss of soil structure, nutrient degradation, and soil salinity. These are very real and at times severe issues.

Plant Nutrients

Plant nutrients

Micro and macro- The difference between micro and macro economics is simple. Microeconomics is the study of economics at an individual, group or company level. Macroeconomics, on the other hand is the study of a national economy as a whole. Microeconomics focuses on issues that affect individuals and companies.

Fertilizers- A fertilizer is any material of natural or synthetic origin that is applied to soils or to plant tissues to supply one or more plant nutrients essential to the growth of plants.

Deficiencies and toxicities

  • Alkalinity- Impairs plant growth by obstructing root development and restricting water supply to the roots. This leads to various nutrients deficiencies.
  • Aluminum toxicity- In soil inhabits the growth of plant shoots by causing nutrient deficiencies in magnesium, calcium, and phosphorus.
  • Boron deficiency- Lack of boron affects the plant's biological processes. This can cause rolled leaves, death of growing points, reduced plant height, and even inability to produce panicles.
  • Boron toxicity- Is a rare condition that usually occurs during dry season when there is high boron content in groundwater.
  • Calcium deficiency- Results in impaired root function. It can also lead to iron toxicity.
  • Copper deficiency- Affects photosynthesis and respiration. This can lead to sterility of spikelets and many unfilled grains.
  • Herbicide toxicity- Leads to poor crop emergence, root damage, and possibly whiteheads.
  • Iron deficiency- Iron deficiency crops are not able to preoduce enough amounts of chlorophyll. Infected plants are usually yellow in color.
  • Iron toxicity- Can occur when large amounts of iron accumulate after flooding. It targets the roots and causes leaves to bronze and dry up.
  • Magnesium deficiency- Affects several enzymes activities in plants and may reduce grain quality.
  • Manganese deficiency- Affects photosynthesis and protein synthesis
  • Manganese toxicity- Affects the plant's metabolic processes which can lead to sterility in plants.
  • Nitrogen deficiency- Affects all the parameters contributing to yield: be familiarized with the symptoms and prevent it.
  • Nitrogen excess- When plants receive to much nitrogen, they become more attractive to insects and diseases.
  • Phosphorus deficiency- Affects tillering, root development, early flowering, and ripening.
  • Potassium deficiency Affects photosynthesis. Affected crops are usually short and discolored.
  • Silicon deficiency- Affects the development of strong leaves, stems, and roots.
  • Sulfur deficiency- Affects chlorophyll production protein synthesis and plant function and structure.
  • Sulfide toxicity- Reduces nutrient uptake of plants by reducing root respiration.
  • Zinc deficiency- Affects several biochemical processes in the rice plant, thus severely affecting plant growth.


Properties of water

  • Polar molecules
  • High specific heat
  • High heat of vaporization
  • The lower density of ice

Types of water pollution- types of water pollution. There are many types of water pollution because water comes from many sources. Nutrients pollution. Some waste water, fertilizers and sewage contain high levels of nutrients. also surface water pollution, oxygen depleting, microbiological, suspended matter, chemical water pollution, and oil spillage.

Water treatment ( removing pollution)- The fraunhofer institute for interfacial engineering and biotechnology IGB and its european partners have developed several effective processes for eliminating persistent pollutants from waste water. Some of these processes generate reactive species which can be used to purify even highly polluted landfill leachate while another can also remove selected pollutants which are present in very small quantities with polymer absorber particles.

Water issues- While the world's popullation tripled in the 20th century, the use of renewable water resources has grown six-fold within the next fifty years, the world popullation will increase by another 40 to 50%. this popullation growth- coupled with industrialization and urbanization will result in an increasing demand for water and will have serious consequences on the environment.

Atoms and ions

Atoms and ions

Atomic theory- In chemistry and physics, atomic theory is a scientific theory of the nature of matter, which states that matter is composed of discrete units called atoms.

Ions- An atom or molecule with a net electric charge due to the loss or gain of one or more electrons.

Ionic compounds- In chemistry, an ionic compound is a chemical compound comprising ions held together by electrostatic forces termed ionic bonding.


Created with images by @eduardorobles - "sharingan" • skeeze - "solar flare x class sun" • Steve Snodgrass - "Reduce Reuse Recycle" • Marco Bellucci - "Soil" • Freeimages9 - "flower onion green" • technicolor76 - "water drops"

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