The Scientific revolution and the enlightenment

Synergy in any era in time can lead to great advances in and out of religion.

Scientific revolution

In the scientific revolution many theories changed the way we see the world today. Many of these theories impacted modern science, mathematics, physics, astronomy, and biology. A polish astronomer named Nicklaus Copernicus began the revolution with his theory of the sun, stars, and planets all revolve around the earth. Thanks to his studies people no longer believed that earth was the center of the universe. Another scientist who expanded his theory was a German scientist named Johannes Kepler. He wrote mathematical laws about the planets movements, this later proved all theory about Copernicus's ideas and observations. Together they both changed the way the rest of the world looks at the universe. Another scientist named Galileo created the theories of motion that answered questions about motion. One was that heavier objects fall faster than lighter ones. When he studied space his best achievements came to life, when he learned about space he became the best to explain the Copernican theory. Later on he learned about the telescope, from this invention he improved the lens and made more telescopes that kept on improving. Through this we were able to study the sky prove most theories even Copernicus'. Through this Galileo learned many things about the moon and other moons such as the 4 moons the revolve around Jupiter. He learned other things about planets in the solar system like discovering Venus. The telescope not only helped astrology in the greatest way possible but made astrology the way it is today. After Galileo died Isaac newton famous for his law of gravity made the way we see and use gravity even today. He made his law through watching a apple fall from a tree, he made many more laws about space as well. From this law he called the motion of falling being gravity. He was able to determine that a object fell faster or slower because of its mass. Newton published a book explaining mass and gravity and the three laws of motion. Again he changed the way people see motion and gravity today. The microscope gave us the ability to see bacteria every where in our daily lives, this also changed science in a key way. A man named Antoine van Leeuwenhoek made improved telescoped after earlier ones were made in the 1500s and the 1600s. Another key invention was the barometer which measured the change in the atmosphere. Evangelista Torriceli made this in 1640. He ran a test that showed a substance's mass changed when the atmosphere changed. Today scientists use this to measure all atmospheres in any climate and the weather to be expected. Another invention was the thermometer, it is not known who really made the first one but a German scientist named Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit. He improved the accuracy of these devices and ran tests of his own which showed how much mercury's temp was when it rose. Through these theories,inventions and people they all changed not only science but space, movement, and math.

The Enlightenment

The enlightenment began in the 1600's to the late 1700's. The enlightenment asked questions like is there a certain way to live. Other questions all related how to live and what to do. The Renaissance and the Reformation gave origins to the enlightenment, they both had religious factors and questions them selves. Old culture inspired thinkers in this time, for example, they brought back the people's opinion in gov't and trust in people's thoughts from the ancient Greeks. Christianity influenced the thinkers too, they considered real world thinking to religion but most believed in god. They thought every thing was a sign of god but when they wanted to challenge problems most reflected to their religious values. Enlightenment came from the scientific revolution. Many ideas of the revolution related to the world, they wanted to make this into human life. Through the questions they answered about life some didn't agree like the people of the revolution they stuck to fact and what's out there. Many things the thinkers talked about had religious challenges ( had to be seen in the light of goodness, lead to fights). Enlightenment thinkers thought humans could find reason for everything like god, why the world was made, and how it was made. Though most questioned if god was real many didn't think religion needing to be based off a god. They thought reason and whats real and whats not was right. The thinkers also questioned the government and how their leaders were chosen. All these ideas and beliefs made it possible for revolution in France and America. One thinker of the enlightenment was John Locke. He influenced rights to the people over the government. He was born in 1632, England, he was one of the most impact people to have ever been in the enlightenment. He wanted to let the ruler have less power and more to the people like being independent. his idea relates to the Magna Carta when king john was forced to sign it, it was about the monarch having to follow English laws and respect individual rights. Locke was influenced by his father who fought for the parliament in the civil war. Then in 1680 after king James II fled the country and Mary and Williams were put in power the parliament passed a law called the bill of rights. The bill made the parliament have more power. Locke didn't accept the right of the monarchs to rule. He wrote a contract stating that the monarch kept the people's rights and the government ruled on their side. If they didn't respect the people's rights they could be overthrown. His ideas and laws would serve as a limit to the government's power over the people. A man named Charles-Louis de Secondat or Baron de Montesquieu who was born in France, 1689 became a thinker of the enlightenment. After Charles was born his uncle died when he was 27 ( I actually calculated it, cause I'm so smart) from his death he inherited his money, became a lawyer and the president of the parliament. He was related was related to Locke because he published a book on how the gov't should be organized.he was also concerned in liberty. Then he made the idea of the legislative branch which made the laws and divided power in the gov't. He called it the separation of powers. Soon the government didn't listen and liberty was lost in England. From his ideas he influenced the U.S. constitution to be made consisting of these ideas. All of these ideas influenced our american founders to make brand new thoughts about human act. Through Locke's ideas to make the bill of rights and the Magna Carta, the colonists were able to accuse the English king of abuse of natural rights. The declaration of independence and the constitution had main ideas from Locke and Charles thoughts. The bill of rights by Voltaire ( who wanted free speech ) stated the freedom of religions and speech. Another thinker Cesare Beccaria who focused on law and people's right to trail and not torture or death had ideas to that were included in the bill. Once the Revolution began in France, the people threw over the king. Therefore concluding all the ideas, beliefs, powers, acts, and the democracy by creating the Declaration of independence which finally gave people power equally.

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caden esposito

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