geography & history 4th year marta puente ruiz



The Enlightenment, also known as the Age of Reason, was a philosophical movement that took place primarily in Europe and, later, in North America, during the late 17thand early 18thcentury. Its participants thought they were illuminating human intellect and culture after the "dark" Middle Ages. Characteristics of the Enlightenment include the rise of concepts such as reason, liberty and the scientific method.


This style was ornate and used light colours, asymmetrical designs, curves, and gold. It had playful and witty themes. The interior decoration of Rococo rooms was designed as a total work of art with elegant and ornate furniture, small sculptures, ornamental mirrors, and tapestry complementing architecture, reliefs, and wall paintings.
The Rococo love of shell-like curves and focus on decorative arts led some critics to say that the style was frivolous or merely modish.


It was an armed conflict between Great Britain and thirteen of its North American colonies, which later declared its independence as the United States of America.
The war largely had its origins in the resistance of many Americans to certain taxes and Parliamentary acts which they claimed were unjust and illegal. Patriot protests escalated into boycotts, and, on December 16, 1773, they destroyed a shipment of tea in Boston Harbor. The British government retaliated by closing the port of Boston. Twelve colonies formed a Continental Congress to coordinate their resistance, and established committees and conventions that effectively seized power.
The Continental Congress appointed George Washington to take command of the militia. Later, he was appointed as commander-in-chief of the newly formed Continental Army, as well as coordinating state militia units. On July 2, 1776, Congress formally voted for independence, issuing its Declaration on July 4.



The second half of the eighteenth century in Europe saw the increasing influence of classical antiquity on artistic style and the development of taste. The achievements of the Renaissance served as a conduit for a renewed interest in harmony, simplicity, and proportion. The Neoclassical style arose from such first-hand observation and reproduction of antique works and came to dominate European architecture, painting, sculpture, and decorative arts.


Francisco José de Goya was a Spanish romantic painter and printmaker. He is considered the most important Spanish artist of late 18th and early 19th centuries and throughout his long career was a commentator and chronicler of his era. Immensely successful in his lifetime, Goya is often referred to as both the last of the Old Masters and the first of the moderns.
He suffered an illness that left him completely deaf. After 1793 his work became progressively darker and pessimistic. In the late 1790s, commissioned by Godoy, he completed his La maja desnuda, a remarkably daring nude for the time and clearly indebted to Diego Velázquez. In 1801 he painted Charles IV of Spain and His Family. In 1807 Napoleon led the French army into Spain.


Beginning in Spain and France during the 1820s, liberalism soon spread to England. The liberals wanted modern, efficient self-government, although they were not always for universal male suffrage. They wanted freedom of press and freedom of assembly. They wanted constitutions, and Laissez Faire economic policies, such as free trade and low tariffs. They were generally against unions.


Nationalism was the most powerful of all the ideologies in this period. France and Great Britain's strong nation-states had inspired jealousy throughout the rest of Europe; other nations, disorganized as they were, wanted to unify. Soon, just about every European language group wanted to have their own nation. Quickly outlawed by reactionary forces, nationalist groups formed secret societies such as the Italian Carbonari and German Buschenschaft. These societies distributed propaganda leaflets and plotted rebellions. Often, nationalism combined with other ideological issues, from liberalism to socialism.


There was a significant industrial challenge that miners faced during the 1700's and this was related to the extraction of water from deep mines. At this time, the true power of steam was showcased as the energy was used to pump up the water from deep within the mines. With this, the potential power of steam was discovered, leading to the invention of a full fledged steam engine. Steam-powered electrical power plants in the modern world came later. The basic principle on which the initial steam engines worked on was “condensation of water vapor to create a vacuum”.


Thomas Savery was the first person to invent a steam pump for the purpose of pumping out water in 1698. The steam pump worked by boiling water until it was completely converted into vapor. The steam was then collected in a tank extracting every droplet of vapor from the original tank, thereby creating a vacuum in the original container. It was this vacuum that was employed to produce an adequate amount of energy to pump water out from the mines.


Born on May 26, 1951, She was an astronaut and astrophysicist. In 1983 she became the first American woman in space, even though she was the third woman in space overall.
Sally Ride studied at Stanford University and then got a spot in NASA's astronaut program. She joined the Challenger shuttle mission on June 18, 1983, and became the first American woman in space. She returned to Earth on June 24.
The next year, Ride again served as a mission specialist on a space shuttle flight. She was scheduled to take a third trip, but it was canceled after the tragic Challenger accident in 1986. After the accident, Ride served on the presidential commission that investigated the space shuttle explosion.
After NASA, Ride became the director of the California Space Institute at the University of California, San Diego, as well as a professor of physics at the school in 1989. In 2001, she started her own company to create educational programs and products known as Sally Ride Science to help inspire girls and young women to pursue their interests in science and math.
For her contributions to the field of science and space exploration, Ride received many honors, including the NASA Space Flight Medal. She was also inducted into the National Women's Hall of Fame and the Astronaut Hall of Fame.
On July 23, 2012, Sally Ride died at the age of 61, following a 17-month battle with pancreatic cancer.
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