4 Causes and Effects By: Lauren Call to Mr. Meninga, class 3B, March 17, 2017

The navigation and sailing school.

-Open in 1418 by Prince Henry. The first school to attract and teach new young sailors how to do cartography, map-making, navigation, and science skills. The goal of the school was to prepare explores to travel down the West Coast of Africa. To Find the limits of the Muslim world and the legendary stories about the "Christian Empire".

Causes:

1) Prince Henry, was the son of King John. Going up in Portugal he would go sailing with his farther and brother. By the age twentyone Henry had traveled in Africa, crossed the Mediterranean sea, as well as finding places unknown to Europe. Which some say started his growth and passion for sailing and would inspired him to build the first navigation and sailing school in Portugal. A year later his farther appointed him Prince Henry, the governor of the Province of Algarve, found on the Portugal Southern Coast.

2) Starting in the 17th century sport sailing was introduced and spread to the American colonies by Charles the second in, 1660. Centuries down the road sport sailing became just sailing, which was a living for most men. Traveling for long periods of times, most sailors did it for the money. Trying to find common Connery needs such as Asian spices and gold to bring back to the New World and sell. Some Christians where known for sailing to local populations, trying to convert the people to the christian faith. Some sailors with money where driven though adventure or scientific inquiry.

3) The first boats were known to come from Egypt. The ships had oars on the side, some had square sails to travel into the red sea. More then most had one level for the crew. When more sailing was occurring boats where made with up to three levels, which became Trireme warships. In the age of discovery, the 14 century sails like Columbus used were "flagships". The flagship's sails looked and where made like an old fashion fan. In the 15th century most sailing ships where made the same with some add on's. For example the levels of the ships gave around a year of voyages and some were armed with cannons.

4) Most sailors started at a young age, perhaps as young as 8 or 10. Becoming a sailor through a good known friend or family member. Not living as long as they should the Spanish voyagers carried on board some what healthy food such as: dried olives, dried fruits, and oil-based recipes that used cheap wine or beer. Eve then half of the crew died from scurvy. Some from falling off and or just getting sick with no medicine.

Effects:

1) An effect of Prince Henry's Navigation and Sailing School was inspiring the use of the Caravel ship. Made by knowledge killed craftsman, it was a small but fast Spanish or Portuguese sailing ship. Fun fact Columbus famous ships, the Nila and Pinta were supposedly Caravels. Henry chose to use the Caravel ships because of there speed and ability to sail though windward. There were some downs to using them though, the great lateen sail required a large crew. Which most voyages could not carry vast amounts of fresh water for such a large band of sailors.

2) After young Prince Henry became aware of the the profit possibilities in having trade routes he became lead role in encouraging Portuguese maritime exploration. Up until his death in 1460. Henry's ejective was to know how far the Muslim territories in Africa and to see if it was possible to reach Asia by sea. If he could, some say he wanted to join forces with Prester John in the Christian Kingdom. When Prince Henry died his two best known sailors when on traveling the Africa Coastline. From which the Portuguese engaged Profits in slaves and gold.

3) Tacking was big uses in Prince Henry's Navigation and Sailing School. Tacking allowed the boasts to move in a zig-zag fashion called "beating". This allowing the sailing ships to move with out having to wait for the wind to push them. Before sailors where lucky if the wing was blowing the direction they wanted to go but after it let them move directly upwind. It was believed that tacking was introduced to the Mediterranean region by the Arabic Persian sailors.

4) Prince Henry school of Navigation and Sailing is known for the "break though for Portuguese navigation". Most sailors where afraid of sailing towards Africa. Mostly because at the time period people believed that there were sea monsters and hot boiling water if they got to close to the equator. Know one was known to even try going; to the what they called "Sea of Darkness" not until Price Henry sent fourteen expeditions there. His influence was the first step into finding the wanted sea route to the Indies. Henry even tried convincing more sailors to go deeper south.

The Sailing to Inca:

The Inca Empire or known as the Inka Empire arose from the highlands of Peru around the 13 century. Fun fact, the Inca Empire was the largest empire in Columbian America. The Incas where known to use peaceful methods for wars but in fact they actually had a strong military. Which some say helped them get such a massive kingdom. Despite of their power, the Inca people were quickly overwhelmed by diseases and the weapons of the Spanish. Taken over in 1572.

Causes:

1) It's told that Christopher Columbus believed he knew how to sail a faster way westward to the Atlantic to get to Asia with no stops. It would take a big journey and lots of money to do this though. So Christopher asked Spain for some financial help. Where he was given money from Catholic Monarchs, Isabella of Castile, and Ferdinand of Argon.

2) Horses have always had a big impacted in the world. They're a great tool in daily life. In the early days horses were everything. They were mostly harmless to society for their incredible strength. They pulled plows, carriages, and let humans ride them. They even stepped up the military success. For these reasons it's no surprise that Christopher Columbus took horses along his long voyages. But horse were also not every where in the world, For example in Inca.

3) Due to the fame of the Spanish customs of using the finest steel swords called Toledan blades. They were chosen for many reasons; they were heavy duty but also able to be bent and come back straight. The sword was longer than most and thin making it easer to hold and swipe the sword. The blade it self was known to be a perfect selection of raw materials. To make the sword the blacksmiths have to put two different steels together in 1454 degree heat. When the steel was lava hot they beat and scraped it to perfection, then dipping them into cool water to harden the steel. Sometimes the blacksmiths would put a kind of oil in the cooling water to give a clean, smooth, and cool design to the sword. This would be why Christopher took the finest steel swords with him on the long voyages.

4) Because of the huge horses that the Inca people had never seen and swords that the Spanish brought, it was no surprise that they stood out as well as looking like a threat. Meaning, it only took a day or two for the emperors messenger to give the big news him that there were people who seem like gods on his land. The emperor, trying to look mighty, he chooses not have them killed but instead had his messenger give an invite the new people to join him in Cajamarca. At the meeting it was said that the Spanish men would not come down from their horses. That the horse's nostrils disturbed the fringe of the emperors forehead the whole time. But the emperor was not disturbed by this, in fact, he even told them, "the time has come for you to pay {...} pay with your lives".

Effects:

1) The effect of Christopher Columbus getting the money to sail, allowed him to find the Inca. Even though finding Inca was an mistake. After getting financial help Christopher made up the commanding of three small ships. Which all ended up on the Coast of the Caribbean Islands. After staying there for while he published a letter that told of all his findings on his "European" voyage in, 1492. After the word of his achievements was spread Christopher was called, "Admiral of the Ocean". Giving him the power like a celebrity to lead more exploration that were further. But, because he believed he was in the East Indies, so he named the Natives, Indians.

2) Coming to the new world (Inca) in 1492. Those sailor's effected 200,000 Inca people; half of the Empire. But this wasn't something that was planned or known was possible. To explain, the Spanish had domestic animals growing up. Domestic animals are horses, pigs, goats, etc. All animals can carry a deadly disease, most did but because the Spanish people lived with the domestic animals more than most and became immune to the deadly diseases. But when the Spanish sailor's took domestic animals with them on the voyage the Inca people where affected by the horses carrying deadly disease. Because the Inca had never seen or encountered a horse the Inca people where not immune to them. Causing immense - and large scale - amounts of people to get really sick or die. One of the main disease was Smallpox. Smallpox is an viral infection that enters someone's nose or throat moving to their lungs affecting the lymphatic system. After a period of about five days it starts effecting the persons hands and face slowly moving to the rest of their body covering them in blisters. The blisters contain smallpox DNA that brake open in the blister killing the host. So, many Inca died because it only takes connection with some that has it to get it.

3) If the Emperor didn't invite the new people to join him in Cajamarca and tell them to pay with there life the Spanish may have taken it as a threat. But he did, causing the Spanish men to plan a surprise attack using their horses, canons, and guns. Effecting the Inca people by them capturing and killing most of them. With no care they, not very kindly, captured Emperor Atahualpa as well.

4) The Spanish used the native people against the emperor by telling him that if he wanted his people back and safe he had to exchange gold, spices, and other metals such as silver. Sadly after Francisco Pizzaro and his men gained and found everything they wanted they then murdered Emperor Atahualpa. If they hadn't gone to Inca and done what they did, the Spanish wouldn't have gotten the minerals sliver, gold, and slaves.

Technologies developed by Europeans:

The phrase "Middle Ages" are use to describe Europe between the fall of Rome in 476 CE and the start of the Renaissance in the 14th century. Many thing were started after and during that time period. The start of many new technologies were developed. For example the printing press, schools, and new advanced weapons.

Causes:

1) The start of Marco Polo's book The Travels of Marco Polo (ll Milione) Started when he was captured and sent to the Genoese prison. Where he met a prisoner named Rustichello. who was also a writer like Marco Polo. After Marco Polo told his new friend about his accomplishments in Asia, what he did, what he had seen, and where he traveled they both started to put it down on paper. Eventually making a book and publishing it while in prison before he got out in 1299. The history of printing press which helped Marco Polo began long before Gutenberg's time but to touch on the topic, Johannes Gutenberg born in 1398 died 1468 was known to have started the mass production of books. As well as the rapid dissemination of knowledge throughout Europe. Without the printing press the book would have not spread so far. For example, the book The Travels of Marco Polo was printed in French, Italian, and Latin.

2) Huge artillery pieces (cannons) appeared in Europe around the 15th century, which where typically just for large guns. At first there was the Cannon Royal or the Double Cannon, the Whole Cannon, and the Demi Cannon. Weighing anywhere from 6,000 up to 8,000 pounds. They were made to take down the big defenses of enemies as well as be portable on wheels and be used on ships. The cannon comes from the Latin word Canna meaning tube. This couldn't have happen with out the making of gunpowder. It's said that gunpowder was invented in China and found it's way to Europe in the 13th century.

3) Prince Henry of Portugal organized a school for navigation at Sagres, Portugal and taught navigators how to develop and apply the new sailing innovations. Open in 1418 by Prince Henry the first school wanted to attract and teach new young sailors how to do map-making, navigation, and science skills. The goal of the school was to prepare explores to travel down the West Coast of Africa. This would allow them to find the limits of the Muslim world and the legendary stories about the "Christian Empire".

4) With accurate maps came the discovery of how to find longitude and latitude. Maps have been along for many years. Most early maps were for land purposes. The first concept of spherical earth was known from the Greek philosophers around the time of Aristotle. There started out being many different types of maps such as flat, round, and O-T or T-O. O-T maps where land names it a T from orbiting inside of an O. A type of medieval world map also called a beatine map. Later on in time mapping became more than just land routs but routes of the sea. Sailors sailed around the world and took document notice of where they ended up.

Effects:

1) Beig printing in French, Italian, and Latin does make it quite essay to become popular. It allows more people to have the changes to read it. So it's no surprise that the book The Travels of Marco Polo ended up in Christopher Columbus hands. It is said that Columbus and his brother, Bartholomew admired the great riches in China and East Africa. They came up with a map that would take them straight to China by crossing the Atlantic Ocean. They got all of their information from what was in Marco Polo's book, which now people know is wrong because the new world was in between Europe and Asia using the Atlantic route. But to Christopher and his brother this was a smart route because traveling the Silk Road was dangerous and the sea route would take to long. After following what they believed was a shorter route, they ended up on the Caribbean going from island to island looking for precious stone, gold, silver, and spices.

2) Cannons just like guns where taken on ships to help. To hit another ship or destroy a big rocks. They were taken off ships when sailors need them to fight on land. Without cannons there may have been a change in who won fights. We call the Americas, America because it was conquered with the help of cannons. For example, they where taken to Inca and use in the surprise attack help killing and capturing the emperor.

3) The effect of Prince Henry's Navigation and Sailing school came with new technologies developed like tacking, two layered ships, and more adding more sails.Tacking was of big uses in Prince Henry's Navigation and Sailing School. Tacking allowed the boasts to move in a zig-zag fashion called "beating". This allowed the sailing ships to move with out having to wait for the wind to push them. Before sailors where lucky if the wind was blowing the direction they wanted to go but after it let them move directly upwind.

4) Taking advantage of the accurate mapping, compasses, and benefits from Prince Henry's navigation and Sailing school others began some voyages to the Meridia and Azores Island around the 14th Century. In the 19th Century Portugal ended up controlling outputs at six locations, a small part of the West Coast of Africa. Thanks to accurate mapping it became reliable when they wanted to go back or find were they were.

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There was a problem with one of the word documents and I lost about six of the URLS.

Credits:

Created with images by Norman B. Leventhal Map Center at the BPL - "Cosmographia."

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