There are many factors that differentiate the early Aboriginal settlements from those that occurred in the same era. First, as splinter groups broke off and created their own settlements, those from Eurasia would tend to the land they settled in, developing intensive agricultural technologies such as irrigation systems and relying heavily on maintaining crops and herds for survival.
Australia lacked any crops available to harvest - no grains or maize - and there was no abundance in animals to herd such as cattle, therefore they never obtained the necessary fundamentals for agriculture to develop (Klein).
Another factor that evolved from isolation was in the thoughts and practices of the Aboriginals. Settlements in Eurasia tended to develop strong forms of government with chiefs, pharaohs and other leaders with political hierarchies whereas the Aboriginals lack these definitive leaders. Instead they break off into hundreds of tribes, each tribe independent from one another down to the smallest details - even the dialects differ. These tribes function on internal codependency from their members.
Religion was a big revolutionary factor across the world during this time and the Aboriginals had a distinctly unique approach to their religious side. They call it 'The Dreamtime'. The Dreamtime is in reference to how the Earth, humans, and other creatures began. They believe we as humans all sprung up out of various forms of nature and reduce back to nature when we depart from the land (Villanueva Siasco).
Contrasts and Parallels
The Aboriginals never hit the iconic "bronze age" that swept across Eurasia. Australia lacked the sedimentary materials to have this revolution just as they were lacking in agriculture. They utilized the sharp edges of natural rock faces to hone their weapons and other tools (Monroe).
Expression through art was alive in Eurasia as well as in Australia. While pottery never became prominent for the Aboriginals, both areas conveyed their traditions through paintings on cave walls and rocks. Sculptures depicting deities and women were common between both civilizations. Since the Aboriginals did not have access to the stone and metal that Eurasia was used to, their statues were carved from wood and hand painted. Mesopotamia, Egypt and the Mediterranean has various metal statues in accordance with their stone and wood models (Fernandez-Armest).
One outstanding difference between these two regions of the world is the utter lack of literature within the Aboriginal culture. Their spoken language is so young it has hardly had time to develop, let alone be conveyed through written word (Klein). Most of what we know from the early time in Eurasia is due to their studious act of record keeping. Greece is renowned for their stories and China's religious schools were carefully dictated (Fernandez-Armest).