Ghana has a hot, dry continental air mass over the Sahara with a warm, humid martitime tropical air mass that forms over the South Atlantic. Ghana consists of scrub and tall grass, mostly Guinea grass, rain forests, tall trees, silk cotton trees, with dense forest areas all over along with desert areas. MAP https://www.britannica.com/place/Ghana
The religion of Ghana consists of one-half of the population being Christian and one-fifth of the population is Muslim. Christian influences are dominant in the southern-part of the country. The people of Ghana also strongly worship the belief that all living things including plants, animals, etc. have spirits that watch over the people of Ghana. www.britannica.com/place/Ghana
www.ghanaweb.com Slave trade is also a big part of Ghana going back to the 1500s when the new world came to form, demanding fine goods and an increase in slave trade around the world. Trade in slaves soon rose to become more in demand than gold and other precious trade items. The West Coast of Africa became the primary source of slaves,which attracted attention from Europe, even Muslim traders from the North. It is estimated that roughly 6.3 million slaves were shipped from West Africa all the way to North and South America.
www.britannica.com Ghana become one of the richest empires under trade, trading with people inside Africa such as: Arab and Berber salt traders of the North and producers of gold and ivory to the South. The king of Ghana also imposed an import-export tax on traders and a production tax on gold, which was the country's most valuable commodity.
www.ushistory.org The king of Ghana was known as the ghana, or war chief. Mayors, civil servants, counselors, and ministers were appointed by the king to assist with administrative duties- but at all times, the king was in charge.
CULTURE OF GHANA www.everyculture.com Ghana is known as the first African country to acquire independence from European rule. Ghana's national language is English, but Akan is the most widely spoken and has acquired informal national language status. Ghanaian national dress consists of kente cloth and another source of common identity and pride. The main exports of Ghana, gold and cocoa, also stand as identifying symbols.
CURRENT GHANA www.britannica.com/place/Ghana The country of Ghana gained independence on March 6, 1957. By the 1990s, through the country's state of affairs began exhibiting signs of improvement, and Ghana is now held as an example of successful economic recovery and political reform in Africa. In 2017, Ghana will celebrate 60 years of independence.
MALI PHYSICAL www.worldatlas.com Mali consists mainly of grasslands of the savanna that rolls into higher plateaus as you move north. Along with rugged elevations of hills that reach upwards of 3,280 feet of the north east
RELIGIONS www.studycountry.com The Islamic country of Mali is mainly dominated being dominated by the Muslim population. Christianity also co-existed with Islam. In pre-Islamic period, Malian tribes practiced the typical pagan beliefs in bodiless spirits.
MALI SLAVE TRADE jjcweb.jjay.cuny.edu/history/worldspringoa/mali.html Slave labor in Mali produced the food surpluses that underlay the power of Mali's rulers and lineage chiefs. Slaves lacked kinship ties, and Mali's ruling elite prized slaves for their loyalty. Slaves played an important role in Mali society as royal administrators and soldiers. For an entire decade, a court slave named Sakura ruled Mali.
TRADING SYSTEM finance.mapsoftheworld.com/economy/mali/trade.html Economy of Mali banked mainly on trans-Saharan trade during the ancient period. Niani, which was the capita; of the empire of Mali, had people thriving on milk, pounded millet, and honey. Mali suffered a trade deficit till the 1970s. Mali exports rum, chemicals, salt, mineral products, veggies, fruits, food, fuel, machinery, etc.
FACTS ABOUT MALI www.mapsoftheworld.com/mali/facts.html The Republic of Mali is a landlocked country, and is located in Western Africa. Mali shares borders with Algeria to the north, Niger to the east, Burkina Faso and Cote d'lvoire to the south, Guinea to the south-west, and Senegaland and Mauritania to the west. Bamako, the capital of Mali, is considered to be the fastest growing city in Africa and the sixth fastest growing city in the world. Mali covers an area of 478,839 square miles, and is the 24th largest country in the world with a population of 14,517,176.
CULTURE OF MALI www.everyculture.com . A number of symbols and elaborate sequences in the construction of the culture of Mali as the struggle against colonization, the celebration of Mali's rich history, and its long multicultural tradition grow. The culture of Mali is exhibited through the diverse religious cultures and differences in economy contribute to the retrospect government.
TODAY http://www.bbc.com/news/world-africa-13881370 In 2013, France intervened militarily upon the government's request following the capture of the town of Konna and its troops overran Islamist strongholds. Mali is self-sufficient in food and is also one of Africa's major cotton producers. A chronic foreign trade deficit makes it nonetheless heavily dependent on foreign aid and remittances from Malians working abroad.
SONGHAI PHYSICAL http://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Songhai_Empire Centered in the middle of Africa stretching to the Niger River in what is now central Mali. The empire eventually extended west to the coast of the Atlantic Ocean, and east into present-day Nigeria and Burkina Faso. Songhai is considered to be one of the greatest African empires, Songhai was also one of the largest empires in West Africa. With several thousand cultures under its control, Songhai was clearly the largest empire in African history.
RELIGION OF SONGHAI http://www.everyculture.com/wc/Japan-to-Mali/Songhay.html The religion in Songhai is for the most part Islam apart from other indigenous beliefs. Songhai holds population of 3 million with a French dialect. According to Songhay religious beliefs, there are a number of paths that situate Songhay in the cosmos. These paths are magic, possession, ancestor worship, witchcraft, and Islam
SONGHAI SLAVE TRADE http://apworldhistory101.com/history-of-africa/songhai-slavery/ Slavery with European states along the coast used to buy and sell African slaves for profit to work on sugar plantations, especially in Brazil and the Caribbean. Slaves were usually captives of war captured during raids on nearby regions.
TRADING SYSTEM SONGHAI http://www.ducksters.com/history/africa/songhai_empire.php Askia Mohammed Toure introduced measures and weights to standardize trading and adding inspectors for all the good being traded at each of the empire's important trading centers. Gold and salt were most commonly traded and the Songhai empire was known for its production of religious artifacts and practical tools. There were many different tribes and clans that were part of the Songhai empire.
INFO ABOUT SONGHAI http://www.everydaylifeinanearlywestafricanempire.com/100factspage.html West Africa’s Niger River provided bigger and better harvests than the Nile. Kusoy, the fifteenth member of the Zuwa Dynasty, became Kukiya’s first Islamic king. Converting to Islam in 1009 or 1010, he appointed Muslims to governmental positions. Salt was the Songhai currency. They mined it in the Berber territories and carried it south by caravan. There were royal storehouses for salt.
CULTURE OF SONGHAI http://www.sahistory.org.za/topic/songhai-african-empire-15-16th-century The capital was at Gao, a city surrounded by a wall. It was a great cosmopolitan market place where kola nuts, gold, ivory, slaves, spices, palm oil and precious woods were traded in exchange for salt, cloth, arms, horses and copper. Islam was introduced to the royal court of Songhai in 1019, most people remained faithful to their traditional religion.
SONGHAI TODAY https://www.britannica.com/place/Songhai-empire Considered one of the greatest African empires, from the early fifteenth to the late sixteenth century, Songhai was also one of the largest empires in Western Africa, stretching all the way to present-day Cameroon. With several thousand cultures under its control, Songhai was clearly the largest empire in African history. Although it was taken over by Morocco in 1591, many of the same religious and social traditions remain today and that is why the Songhai group of people are so close because of their heritage and beliefs.
ZIMBABWE PHYSICAL https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=11XUwCcC9tw Zimbabwe, a landlocked country in south-central Africa, is slightly smaller than California. It is bordered by Botswana on the west, Zambia on the north, Mozambique on the east, and South Africa on the south.
RELIGION http://www.nationsencyclopedia.com/Africa/Zimbabwe-RELIGIONS.html The government does not require registration of religious groups. These affiliations assume a population of 12 million. Due to emigration during the recent years of crisis, estimates of the nation’s current population vary between 11 and 13 million. Estimates particularly vary about how much of the population is syncretic (mixing Christian beliefs with indigenous beliefs).
SLAVE TRADE http://www.nationsencyclopedia.com/Africa/Zimbabwe-HISTORY.html A main cause of the trade was the colonies that European countries were starting to develop. In America, for instance, which was a colony of England, there was a demand for many laborers for the sugar, tobacco and cotton plantations. Paid laborers were too expensive, and the indigenous people had largely been wiped out by disease and conflict, so the colonies turned to Africa to provide cheap labor in the form of slaves.
TRADING SYSTEM http://www.globaltrade.net/m/c/Zimbabwe.html It is estimated that the central ruins and surrounding valley supported a Shona population of 10,000 to 20,000. With an economy based on cattle husbandry, crop cultivation, and the trade of gold on the coast of the Indian Ocean, Great Zimbabwe was the heart of a thriving trading empire from the 11th to the 15th centuries. The word Zimbabwe, the country’s namesake, is a Shona (Bantu) word meaning “stone houses.”
ZIMBABWE INFO http://travel.nationalgeographic.com/travel/countries/zimbabwe-facts/ Victoria Falls, the world's largest sheet of falling water, on the Zambezi River at the border of Zambia and Zimbabwe was named in honor of Queen Victoria of United Kingdom by David Livingstone. The world's largest man-made lake and reservoir by volume, Lake Kariba on the border between Zambia and Zimbabwe is formed by damming the Zambezi River.
CULTURE http://www.our-africa.org/zimbabwe/people-culture The national flag and the Zimbabwe bird (the African fish eagle) are the most important symbolic representations of the nation. The Zimbabwe bird is superimposed on the flag, and while the flag symbolizes independence, the Zimbabwe bird represents continuity with the precolonial past. Internationally, particularly in the tourist sector, photographs of Victoria Falls, Great Zimbabwe, and wildlife are symbols of the national history and natural heritage.
CURENT ZIMBABWE http://www.newzimbabwe.com/ became a key figure in the fight for independence from white minority-rule as leader of the Zimbabwe African National Union and spent 11 years in prison before becoming Zimbabwe's first post-independence prime minister in 1980.