INVASIONS - The first people to invadir Spain were the celtas. Next, came the iberos. Together they made the first civilization in España, the celtiberos. The Romans were the next people to invade Spain. They had the idea to agotar all resources and kill everyone they see.
The romans did not dejar much behind the only two things left were the Segovia and the Merida. The next people to come were the moors. The moors were the Arabs, Berbers, Syrians from North Africa who invaded the peninsula in 711 A.D. They come to Spain to escapar a religious persecution. The moors easily derrotaron the visigoth Reinos and gained almost all of the peninsula.
This is a Spain Peninsula.
Cordoba- The largest ciudad in Western Europe in the 10th century. Was under the rule of Abderraman III (929-961 AD). La Mezquita.
La Reconquista - Almost continual fighting between Christian kingdoms in north of the Peninsula and Muslims who controlled the south. Santiago: “Matamoros” Patron Saint of Spain.
Toledo was the city of tolerance - Toledo had many different kinds of religions like Judíos, Musulmanes, and Cristianos. The influence of all three are still evident today with synagogues, Iglesias and cathedral, and mudejars.
El Cid was thought to be the hero of La Reconquista.
1492 - Moors had begun to dividir into many pequeño kingdoms. Last Moorish rey , in Granada, defeated in January of 1492. As he looked back onto his beloved Alhambra el palacio , he began to llorar His madre : “Weep, my hijo , like a mujer , for what you would not fight for like a hombre .”
Reyes Catolicos - Fernando of Aragon and Isabel of Castilla Married in 1469. They casaron and unieron christian kingdoms together to go against the Moors. They solidified their power through religion and ejército success. They terminó la reconquista in 1492 by defeating the Moors in Granada.
The Spanish Inquisition - 1492: Last Moorish king defeated; all Muslims remaining in Spain forced to leave or convert to Christianity. 1502: Given the success against the Muslims, it is now decided that all Jews need to dejar Spain or convertir to Christianity. But how do we know they’ve converted? We interrogar and torturarlos. them until they confess—or put them on trial and later execute (or burn) them!
Oro Diggers - Juana, hija of Fernando and Isabel. Marries Felipe (el Hermoso) of the powerful Habsburg family. Juana is known as la loca. Legend has it that when Felipe died, she llevaba his ataúd through the streets of Granada, stopping often to kiss the corpse of the dead king.
Carlos V - Son of Juana la Loca and Felipe el Hermoso. He was a holy roman emperor. Under his rule, Spanish Empire grew rapidly—Conquistas of Incas, Aztecs. Gold, plata flooded into Spain from Americas, along with new crops: maíz , potatoes, fruits. Carlos V was known as the road warrior. Carlos V used the funds that were pouring in from the colonies to subsidize the many religious wars he was fighting across Europe. Spain under Carlos V became one of the staunchest defenders of Catholicism, as it fought to stop the spread of the Protestant Reformation across Europe. He pasa on this legacy to his successor, his son Felipe. Ruled from 1516-1556.
Felipe II - The son of Carlos V. He continued the fight against protestants. In 1554, married Mary Tudor of England in an attempt to create an international Catholic alliance. A male heir from this marriage would have become King of England, however, there was no son and the protestant Elizabeth I came to power in England. Annexed Portugal, Dutch declara independence from Spain: starts war involving England. 1588: Spain’s Invincible Armada derrotada by England. Felipe II gobernada from 1556-1598.
El Escorial - Palace of Felipe II. Contains Monastery, Basilica, Library, and Royal Residence. After defeat of Armada in 1588, Felipe II spent most of his time here, until he died here in his bed overlooking the altar of the basilica in 1598.
El Greco - Painter from Greece, his real name is Domenikos Theotokopoulos. Traveled to Spain in search of work in the decoration of El Escorial. Felipe II hated his style and refused to hire him. El Greco moves to Toledo and hits the big time. Makes a cuadro that insults the king.
Another Habsburg - Felipe II succeeded by his son Felipe III. Felipe rules from 1598-1621. Felipe III dies and his son takes the rule. His name is Felipe IV. He reigned from 1621-1665. Felipe IV reinó over one of the richest times in Spain's history.
Money because it was a rich period.
Siglo de Oro - Literature, Drama, Art. La vida es sueño by Pedro Calderon de la Barca. Lope de Vega, Tirso de Molina. Character of Don Juan introduced—image of “Latin Lover” created.
End of the Habsburgs - Felipe IV’s son, Carlos II is known as “El Hechizado” (“the Bewitched”). He died in 1700, leaving no heir to ascend to the throne of Spain.
War - War of Spanish Succession pitted royal families and their nations against each other to see who would rule Spain. War ends in 1713, with Spain losing Gibraltar to the English. Felipe V, the Bourbon grandson of Louis XIV, becomes King of Spain. The Bourbon familia remains the royal family of Spain today.
The Bourbons - Competent rulers, but more concerned with life at court. Efforts to convert Spain into a modern state, based on Neoclassical ideas of the Enlightenment.
Carlos IV - Grandson of Felipe V (son of Carlos III). Total incompetence. Dealing with Napoleon leads to use of lots of dynamite.
More War - Rebellion of 2 May 1808 in Madrid begins War of Spanish Independence. Joseph Bonaparte removed from throne of Spain in 1812. During the upheaval, most of the colonies in America gain independence. Constitution of 1812 establishes a parliamentary monarchy.
Fernando VII - Son of Carlos IV. Returns from exile in France to rule after defeat of Napoleon’s troops. Totalitarian rule, constantly at odds with liberals who wanted to expand on Constitution of 1812. Died in 1833, leaving only a daughter, Isabel.
Bourbon Troubles - Fernando VII muere without a male heir, leaving only his daughter, Isabel. The country is divided on the issue of a woman ruler. Supporters of Fernando’s brother, Carlos face off against more liberal supporters of Isabel in several “Guerras Carlistas”. Isabel II reigns from 1833-1868. Isabel II rules through political turmoil, with the Carlists continually opposing her authority. The “Glorious Revolution” removes Isabel II from power in 1868. An short-lived experiment places King Amadeo of Saboya, an Italian, on the throne from 1870-1873.
The first Spanish Republic is proclama in 1873. It ends one year later in 1874.
Return of the Bourbons - The Bourbons return to the throne with the reign of Alfonso XII from 1875-1885, followed by his son Alfonso XIII from 1902-1931. Alfonso XIII was born in 1885 (shortly after his father’s death). His mother oversaw the government as his regent in the interim. In typical Bourbon fashion, Spain quickly begins a downslide, marked by the loss of it last remaining colonies in 1898 and embarrassing military defeats in Morocco.
Alfonso XIII - Unable to put a stop to the political tension and low morale of the country, Alfonso XIII allows a military general to establish a dictatorship from 1923-1931. The dictatorship is unable to solve the problems of the country. In 1931, elections are held to determine if Spain should continue a monarchy or give democracy another try.
Second Spain Republic - The Second Republic of Spain is established in 1931, ushering in an era of hope and optimism. They set up a new, progressive constitution, which gives women the right to vote, allows divorce, separates the Church from the State, and creates public schools. The new government creates an even deeper political and social divide. The military, the Church and the upper classes think there are too many changes going on. Socialists and Communist factions think there are not enough changes and want more change, faster.
Civil War - Two different groups do not agree on the views causing a Civil War. General Francisco Franco stages a military revolt in 1936, beginning the Civil War. Franco’s fascist troops are aided by forces from Germany and Italy. Republican forces get very little help. War ends in 1939, with Franco’s Nationalist forces winning.
Francisco Franco - Fascist dictator of Spain from 1939 until his death in 1975.Idealized “glory years” of Spain under Carlos V and Felipe II. Gender roles, religion, regionalism banned, censorship. Exile of artists, intellectuals, scientists. Basque terrorist group ETA assassinates Franco’s chosen successor. Franco chooses grandson of Alfonso XIII to take over. Upon Franco’s death in 1975, Juan Carlos I de Borbon becomes King of Spain.
Breaking Tradition - Instead of continuing Franco’s policies or establishing an absolute monarchy, Juan Carlos declares democracy in Spain. He names Adolfo Suarez as first Prime Minister. Suarez begins the period known as the Transition. In 1978, Suarez is elected in the first elections held in Spain since 1936. In 80’s Felipe Gonzalez leads Spain out of isolation, joining NATO and the EU. Jose Maria Aznar increases Spain’s influence in the world, with a growing economy and a strong alliance with the USA.
Terrorism - On March 11, 2004, Islamic fundamentalist terrorists place bombs on several commuter trains in Madrid, killing nearly 200 and injuring over 2000. 2 days after the attack, elections proclaim Jose Luis Rodriguez Zapatero the new Prime Minister of Spain. His first action, as promised, was to withdraw Spanish troops from the US war with Iraq. He won re-election in 2008.
Bombs were placed on Trains
New Government - As a parliamentary monarchy, Spain retains its royal family, although all government decisions are handled by Parliament and the President of the Government.