If you follow these phases of design, then you will have a well-planned course that will be easy for learners to follow. During this book, we will discuss how you can use different phases at different points in the design process.
In this phase of the ADDIE model you will learn about:
- Instructional Goals
- Instructional Analysis
- Learner Analysis
- Learning Objectives
The following video (lenght: 5:26) will provide you an overview of all four parts of the Analysis Phase (click on the CC at the bottom of the video to view the closed caption). The next pages will take you through each part to receive a deeper understanding of the analysis phase.
What are instructional goals?
In the first part of the analysis phase of the ADDIE model is instructional goals.
During this part, you will determine what is the goal of your course. What do you want your learners to know and can do when they complete your instruction and, better yet, what do you still want them to know in 5 to 10 years from now? You will have more than one instructional goal, but you shouldn't have more than 5 or 6.
For example, you may want your learners to be able to develop a problem in your discipline and determine a good solution for that problem. This is one of your goals you will focus on throughout the instruction.
How do you go about developing an instructional analysis?
In the next part of the Analysis Phase, you will create an instructional analysis. To do this, you will take your goals for the course and begin to break those down to bite-sized chunks. Determine how your learner will learn your goal? What do the steps learners need to take to perform the task or complete the problem?
Your instructional analysis is still broad. You are not determining the actual learning they will need to do, but the steps and equipment they will need to accomplish the goal. It will be closely aligned to your final step of analysis (learning objectives).
For example: You want to learn to change a tire. What is your instructional analysis of this task?
In this example, Changing a Tire is the instructional goal and 1-5 are the steps in your instructional analysis of how to change the tire. The additional steps for "2. Lift Car" are the learning objectives (which we will talk about later).
Who is your audience?
During the third part of the analysis phase is learner analysis.
Who is taking your course and why? It is important to know who your audience may be, so you can develop the course in a way that is allows your learners to connect to your content.
Here are some questions you need to determine as you are designing your course:
- What is the age range of your learners?
- Where are they located geographically?
- Are there cultural differences that you need to be aware?
- Are there any students who have disabilities, physical or hidden?
- Are there any accommodations you will need to make and how will you handle this or will you build your course to be friendly to people with disabilities?
- What is the skill set of your learners?
- What skill set do you expect them to enter your course?
- What skill set and knowledge do you expect to acquire in your course?
- What knowledge will your students enter your course?
- What knowledge will you expect them to gain in your course?
Learning Objectives: Why use Bloom's Taxonomy?
When developing curriculum, an instructor wants to make sure they are providing the right level of instruction and participation for the students. Bloom's Taxonomy helps to look at the levels of engagement by the student with regards to how the curriculum has been designed. The following diagram by Curriculet helps to explain the taxonomy:
Writing Learning Objectives
When you build curriculum, the first thing you need are your learning objectives. Bloom's Taxonomy guides the building of the learning objectives to make sure the students are learning the material at the right level.
When developing Learning Objectives you need to first determine what domain you want to focus on:
- cognitive (knowing)
- affective (feeling)
- psychomotor (doing)
and then write your objectives. If you want to focus on cognitive then you can use Bloom's Taxonomy to help guide you through the development process. As shown on the first page, there are six levels of Bloom's that addresses the different ways of thinking about content. The higher you go on the taxonomy the higher level of thinking a student will need to use.
All learning objectives should be observable and measurable. Using the following steps will help you develop well written learning objectives.
Steps to Developing Learning Objectives
Step 1: Think with the end in mind. What do you want your students to learn? What skill do you want them to master? You need to know this information before you can build good learning objectives.
Step 2: Determine the level of thinking you want your students to use as they are attempting the materials and assessments.
Step 3: Write your objective with the following pieces:
- action verb (at the right levels in Bloom)
- learning activity (what do you want them to do, can include conditions)
- criterion or evaluation (how are you going to evaluate the activity)
After completing Computer Science 451, students will be able to:
- Construct the development of a species by building a computer game for children between the ages of 5 and 8.
- Design a computer program that will show the migration of Canadian geese in the winter months.
- Justify a problem that needs to be solved and formulate a way to solve it through the development of a computer program.
The next page will provide a list of action verbs that can be used at all levels of Bloom's Taxonomy.
Choose, Describe, Define, Label, List, Locate, Match, Memorize, Name, Omit, Recite, Select, State, Count, Draw, Outline, Point, Quote, Recall, Recognize, Repeat, Reproduce
Classify, Defend, Demonstrate, Distinguish, Explain, Express, Extend, Give Examples, Illustrate, Indicate, Interrelate, Interpret, Infer, Match, Paraphrase, Represent, Restate, Rewrite, Select, Show, Summarize, Tell, Translate, Associate, Compute, Convert, Discuss, Estimate, Extrapolate, Generalize, Predict
Choose, Dramatize, Explain, Generalize, Judge, Organize, Paint, Prepare, Produce, Select, Solve, Use, Add, Calculate, Change, Classify, Complete, Compute, Discover, Divide, Examine, Graph, Interpolate, Manipulate, Modify, Operate, Subtract
Categorize, Classify, Compare, Differentiate, Distinguish, Identify, Infer, Point Out, Select, Subdivide, Survey, Arrange, Breakdown, Combine, Detect, Discriminate, Illustrate, Outline, Separate
Appraise, Judge, Criticize, Defend, Compare, Assess, Conclude, Contrast, Critique, Determine, Grade, Justify, Measure, Rank, Rate, Support, Test
Combine, Compose, Construct, Design, Develop, Formulate, Hypothesize, Invent, Make, Originate, Organize, Plan, Produce, Role Play, Drive, Devise, Generate, Integrate, Prescribe, Propose, Reconstruct, Revise, Rewrite, Transform
Understanding Bloom's Taxonomy
There are many ways to look at Bloom's. Here is a video that will help you understand how to use Bloom's Taxonomy.
Here is a look at the taxonomy per Andy Griffith!