Temperature is the measurement of energy in a substance.
1st law- The energy and matter of the universe is constant. 2nd law- The entropy is increasing. 3rd law- There is no molecular motion at absolute zero.
Specific heat and calories is the energy it takes to heat 1g. H2O by 1c. Heat = q , Joules = j , Calories = cal. 1 dietary cal = 1000 cal- 1k cal. Endothermic dynamic -> heat going in (t) (cold). Exothermic dynamic -> heat is leaving an object. (hot).
Up-cycling vs. Down-cycling:
Not all recycling is considered equal. Up-cycling is when we recycle equal or greater materials. Down-cycling is when something is transformed into lesser value.
Plastic must be down-cycled. It is cheaper to make new plastic than it is to recycle it. It takes a thousands of years to break the material down. Plastic is very toxic after being recycled.
Recycling metals and paper
ALL metals never down-cycle. You would down-cycle while recycling paper. Printer paper is higher in quality than notebook paper is. Paper is made from fibers.
A fertilizer or manure contains one or more of the essential elements. It's applied to soils to encourage crop growth. Inorganic fertilizer we use in labs. It's very cheap, can help fix crops, that we might overuse. Most fertilizers are inorganic. Ammonium Nitrate makes most of the fertilizer in the U.S. Ammonium Nitrate is knowing to blow up.
There are different types of fertilizers like: Straight fertilizer, Compound fertilizer, Organic fertilizer, and Inorganic fertilizer.
Compound fertilizers are made from mixing straight fertilizers or by chemical synthesis of other raw materials. Each plant is known to have its own compound fertilizer.
Any physical or chemical change in water that absorbs affects the health of humans and surface.
Sewage- grey water non-toilet water. You can recycle the nasty grey water. The black water is waste water, must go through a treatment plan. Increases in POD tanks.
Disease causing agents- Infection organisms that causes diseases. Organisms in the water infected by individuals.
*Common bacterial or viral diseases* Like e-coil means poop is in the water and the water is contaminated.
The process that makes water more acceptable for a specific end use.
Water issues- Water is a concern for many different countries. But the scarcity at the heart of the global water crisis is rooted in power, poverty and inequality, not in physical availability.