Environmental Chem Concepts Kylea Kerry, Susana Salado, Davor Zeljko, Heidi Morano

Energy
Temperature is the measurement of energy in a substance.
1st law- The energy and matter of the universe is constant. 2nd law- The entropy is increasing. 3rd law- There is no molecular motion at absolute zero.
Specific heat and calories is the energy it takes to heat 1g. H2O by 1c. Heat = q , Joules = j , Calories = cal. 1 dietary cal = 1000 cal- 1k cal. Endothermic dynamic -> heat going in (t) (cold). Exothermic dynamic -> heat is leaving an object. (hot).
Up-cycling vs. Down-cycling:

Not all recycling is considered equal. Up-cycling is when we recycle equal or greater materials. Down-cycling is when something is transformed into lesser value.

Plastics & Issues

Plastic must be down-cycled. It is cheaper to make new plastic than it is to recycle it. It takes a thousands of years to break the material down. Plastic is very toxic after being recycled.

Recycling metals and paper

ALL metals never down-cycle. You would down-cycle while recycling paper. Printer paper is higher in quality than notebook paper is. Paper is made from fibers.

metals like soda cans
Paper

Printer paper is a higher quality than notebook paper. Printer paper is stronger than notebook paper is.

The paper fibers break down as they get shredded.
Soil

Dirt is simply replaced by soil. It's a renewable resource. Mature soil is developed over time and is arranged in a series, of horizontal soil. This effects how much water and nutrients. Plants need water and nutrients in order to live.

Sand = gritty feel, Silt = dust feel, Clay = solid feel.
One the issues with soil is soil being eroded by how much rain or water comes in contact with it.
Macro means large and long. Micro means small and tiny.
FERTILIZERS

A fertilizer or manure contains one or more of the essential elements. It's applied to soils to encourage crop growth. Inorganic fertilizer we use in labs. It's very cheap, can help fix crops, that we might overuse. Most fertilizers are inorganic. Ammonium Nitrate makes most of the fertilizer in the U.S. Ammonium Nitrate is knowing to blow up.

There are different types of fertilizers like: Straight fertilizer, Compound fertilizer, Organic fertilizer, and Inorganic fertilizer.

Compound fertilizers are made from mixing straight fertilizers or by chemical synthesis of other raw materials. Each plant is known to have its own compound fertilizer.

Compound fertilizer
Water

About 97% of Earth's water is salty-less than 1% of the planet's water is available has fresh H20. Fresh water is distributed unevenly. 1/3 human population will live in areas lacking fresh water.

Surface water is the top layer of a body of water. Area of land drained by a single.
Ground water is a supply of water found under Earths surface recharged when water at surface infiltrates into the ground.
Aquifers are porous layers of sand, gravel, or rock lying below the water table.
Water Pollution

Any physical or chemical change in water that absorbs affects the health of humans and surface.

Sewage- grey water non-toilet water. You can recycle the nasty grey water. The black water is waste water, must go through a treatment plan. Increases in POD tanks.

Sewage water

Disease causing agents- Infection organisms that causes diseases. Organisms in the water infected by individuals.

Bacteria

*Common bacterial or viral diseases* Like e-coil means poop is in the water and the water is contaminated.

E-coil
Water Treatments

The process that makes water more acceptable for a specific end use.

Water treatment

Water issues- Water is a concern for many different countries. But the scarcity at the heart of the global water crisis is rooted in power, poverty and inequality, not in physical availability.

Atoms and Ions
Atomic Theory

In chemistry and physics, atomic theory is a scientific theory of the nature of matter which states that matter is composed of discrete units called atoms.

Atomic number- defines your element = 6 number of protons. Also number of electrons in a neutral atom. Atomic symbol- 1 or 2 letter abbreviation of a name. 1 letter always capitalized, 2 letters always lower case. Atomic mass- average of mass of an element. The number of neutrons and protons.

Atomic number, symbol, mass
Ions

Atoms or groups of atoms with a positive or negative charge. An ion has gained an electron and therefore has a negative charge.

Ionic Compound

Metal + nonmetal neutrally charged, no charge. Metals are always written first. Figure out how much of each element. In chemistry, an ionic compound is a chemical compound comprising ions together by electrostatic forces by ionic bonding.

Ionic compounds

Credits:

Created with images by NASA Goddard Photo and Video - "GOES-13 Gets a "Full-Disk" Look at Weather in the Americas" • jessica mullen - "DSCN2631.JPG" • Dano - "Neat recycling bins"

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