Advertising Unit Michelle Li

Sell & Spin History of Advertising

  • selling has alwasy been impotrant
  • proving the product -- making people feel like they need the product
  • adventism -- notify people
  • delight the eyeball -- creates illution to motivate ppl into a consumer additude
  • 3000 (20+ years ago) ads per day per person
  • 450 billion (20+ years ago) per year for advertising products (eg. cocacola is the 2nd most reconized word)
  • combustion -- advertising (moving a series of images in a culture)
  • pleasure in the current world
  • sell anything to anybody
  • Leo Burnett -- created personalities as products (branding)

First 55-65 minutes of Sell & Spin featuring postmodern advertising guru Bill Bernbach

  • How did he attract an audience?
  • Why specifically is his Volkswagen campaign so commonly cited as an example of outstanding advertising?

Rosser Reeves 'the hard sell'

  • 'unique selling proposition' (USP) = reason why
  • how is product different from others in the market?
  • repeat endlessly to increase retention

Bill Bernbach

  • used humour to connect with viewer
  • using creativity and art

History of advertising

  • A person would shout out the advertisment
  • Merchants started to make signs
  • Printing press -- mass media -- posters/ books -- increasing in consumer culture

Representation in Advertising

Female Representation

  • Women are frequently objectified in adverts

Male Representation

  • Male are stereo-typed to have a certain type of physical features in adverts

Representation in A&F Advertising -- textual analysis

  • Aryan propaganda -- "Aryan" is a word to describe people with Nordic features, meaning having certain facial features, like a high stature, rosy skin, athletic build, straight nose, well-developed chin, dolicocephalic, fair hair and light eyes..."Propaganda" means a particular group or organisation
  • Gender representation -- Characters from the advertisements are always portrayed with male gender roles which mainly targets the people within the same minority as the males in the ads. The advertisements sometimes include the typical female gaze to make people want to wear the brand even more.
  • Ethnicity -- Characters from the adverts are mainly males within the "Aryan propaganda"
  • National identity -- The background links well with the American brand and clearly shows the American sprit. For example in the advertisement given, there is an American Flag in the background promoting the American sprit
  • Youth -- Young Male Characters are portrayed in the advertisement because the brand mainly targets to youths

Diversity in Advertising

  • Because of the slogan ‘Love Wins’, people who are gay tend to became iconic and to be more recognised in advertisements.
  • Including people who are in the diversity or any story line often makes the advertisement more powerful. It also proves that the brand is engaged in diversity and therefore the brand is contemporary and modern.
  • People nowadays tend to be more influenced when there are people who are not the majority is part of the advertisement mainly because of the recent slogan ‘Love Wins’.
  • Brands started to include people with disabilities in their ads as well, breaking the world advertising taboo.

Advertising Regulation

Advertising regulation refers to the laws and rules defining the ways in which products can be advertised in a particular region. Rules can define a wide number of different aspects, such as placement, timing, and content. In the United States, false advertising and health-related ads are regulated the most. Two of the most highly regulated forms of advertising are tobacco advertising and alcohol advertising. (Wikipedia)

What are these advertising?

These are advertising unhealthy products such as cigarettes and chocolate.

What claims are being made for the product?

They both claim to be healthy for human health.

What image are they portraying?

They are portraying that after eating/ having the product, you will be healthy and happy.

Could companies make the same claims for these products today? Why? Why not?

No, companies cannot make the same claims today because it is false advertising and it confuses/ send wrong messages to people and affects their decision and health.

Advertising Regulation Task

Identify the groups of people who appear to be most vulnerable to advertising. That is, who are the regulators trying to protect?

The regulators are trying to protect the consumers, elderly, children, people with diseases...

Adverts for which products are most strictly regulated? Why do you think this is?

Adverts for harmful products like drugs and cigarettes are most strictly regulated. I think it is because it is harmful and it affects people's health.

In a group, discuss whether you think adverts need to be regulated. What harm might they do (if any)?

I think that adverts needs to be regulated. It harms people because it affects what people think of the product and it might harm consumers.

Create your own set of regulations - about 10 rules which you think should apply to advertisers.

  1. The advertisement must not include contents that insult others
  2. The advertisment should not treat both men and women as objects
  3. Main characters shouldn't have their body overly exposed
  4. Main characters should not be under-dressed
  5. Does not discriminate anybody
  6. The advertisement should not have inappropriate content
  7. The content should be family friendly for certain types of product
  8. The advertisement is best to have a meaningful message to project to audiences/ positive impact
  9. The content or product should be true, and not false or misleading
  10. The advertisement should not be overly gory

Look at these (controversial) ads from the clothing company Benetton. Would they pass your set of regulations? Would you ban them? Be prepared to explain why or why not.

No, they would not pass my set of regulations. Yes, I would ban them. Although they all have a positive and meaningful message behind the advertisement, some of the pictures have characters under-dressed or even bloody content and it is not family friendly.

Summary On Superbowl advertising

The Superbowl is a great event and it would attract tons of audiences, meaning it would be a perfect time for advertising your product. In class we have watched two of the Superbowl advertisements -- Carl's Jr advert and Always Like a Girl advert. The two adverts made extreme contrasts. Carl's Jr advert treat women as objects and doesn't relate at all to their product. However the Always Like a Girl advert promotes feminism.

Why was this banned?

Anna Winston

It shows a child being chained and it might disturb adults (especially parents) and children (students). And it makes no connection in the content of the movie. Scary for younger children (eg. the chained child is the same age as the viewer). There is also hanging legs implying suicide. It also shows flashy images.

Night Fest

It shows a person drinking and therefore promotes alcohol. Makes no connection to the fun atmosphere of NF. The playing cards trick relates to gambling.

The Innovation

The short film might disturbs people (adults) because two young children showing affection for each other. It might also disturb people who are against LGBT.

Exploring the work of the ASA

Most Complained About Ads of 2015

How many complaints were received?


What was the nature of the complaints (link to the advertising regulations)?

Swearing, Sexualizing both men and women, Misleading, Upsetting people...

What was the ruling (upheld or not upheld)

What explanation was given for the ruling?

Advertising Agency


What is the problem that this campaign is seeking to address?

The portrayal of women in the media as objects and the correlation between this and: a) body image and self-esteem issues for women and girls; b) violence and harassment against women, and c) a lack of ambition to aspire to leadership roles on the part of women

How is the organisation trying to do this?

To advocate a greater sensitivity and responsibility by the media, entertainment and advertising industries and a culture that celebrates diversity and the positive portrayal of women in the media. use social media to call out content that continues to objectify, sexualise and diminish women while ensuring the messages and photos they post online emphasise actions and values rather than looks

How are the various films part of a wider campaign?

Sell and Spin Taco Bell

Advertising Agencies Have Clients: what is the purpose of a pitch in the agency/client relationship?

Depending on the type of agency and client, the scope of works (SOW) will vary greatly. But in a nutshell, the agency agrees to produce a certain amount of work for a set amount of money (be it a retainer, hourly, or other agreement) and the client agrees to pay the agency upon receipt of the work.

Everything is Problem/Solution Driven: Explain who has the problem and who comes up with a solution in the context of the agency/client relationship?

The client has the problem and the agency comes up with a solution.

The Process of Creating Advertising Campaigns: Create a flowchart to represent the process involving the client, the account manager, the creative team and the creative director.

  1. The account manager (and team) meets with the client to identify the problem that needs to be solved.The final ads are placed in front of the client for approval. Once the client approves, the ads are published, be it online, in print, outdoor, on the air, or any other media.
  2. The account manager writes a creative brief based on that problem. This will include competitive analysis, research, the assistance of the planner and/or creative director, and eventually, sign off from the client.
  3. The account manager briefs the creative team and includes a timeline, budget, proposed media and other factors.
  4. The creative team works on the project for several days (or weeks if they’re lucky) and brings the first round of ideas to the creative director.
  5. The creative director will cull the ideas that are not working, and direct the team to explore the good ideas.
  6. The creative team will continue to work on the ideas, but bring in the production department (if needed), account manager and other members of the agency to make sure the work is on track. If there are printed pieces, or a shoot is required, this is when the production department will begin estimates.
  7. The creative director approves the final ideas, and the creative team presents (hopefully) them to the client.
  8. The client will go away and discuss the ideas, before giving feedback to the agency. This may result in a reworking of ideas (repeat steps 3 to 7) or a green light to move into the execution of the ideas. At this point, a budget and timeline will once again be approved.
  9. The creative team works closely with the account team, media buying, production, and the creative director to produce the ads, whatever form they may take.
  10. The final ads are placed in front of the client for approval. Once the client approves, the ads are published, be it online, in print, outdoor, on the air, or any other media.
  11. The agency will monitor the success, and ROI, of the ads and give the feedback to the client.
  12. The client pays the agency. And then the whole process is repeated.

Job Roles

Copywriter (creatives)

Description Advertising copywriters generally work alongside an art director within the creative department of an advertising, media or full-service agency. They work with client briefs to conceive, develop and produce effective advertising campaigns. The art director deals mainly with the visual images of the advertising campaign, while the copywriter provides the verbal or written 'copy'. This may include creating slogans, catchphrases, messages and straplines for printed adverts and leaflets. They are also involved in writing text for web advertising, as well as scripts for radio jingles and TV commercials. Copywriters also work with media planners/buyers and the production department to fully develop the advertising campaign.


  • liaising with clients and interpreting their briefs;
  • developing creative ideas and concepts, often in partnership with the art director;
  • presenting ideas to colleagues and clients;
  • familiarising themselves with their clients' products and services, the target audience and their competitors' activities;
  • writing clear, persuasive, original copy;
  • updating digital media;
  • proofreading copy to check spelling and grammar;
  • amending, revising or redeveloping adverts or campaigns in response to feedback from the creative director, account team or clients;
  • overseeing campaigns through the production stage to completion;
  • working on several campaigns at once, sometimes under pressure and often to tight deadlines;
  • casting actors for TV and radio work and listening to voice tapes;
  • liaising with production companies, photographers, typographers, designers and printers;
  • keeping up to date with popular culture and trends;
  • monitoring the effectiveness of advertising campaigns.


  • the ability to write good, clear copy in a variety of styles with accurate spelling and grammar;
  • excellent teamwork, communication and interpersonal skills;
  • logic, creativity and imagination;
  • ability to work under pressure and meet tight deadlines;
  • strong organisational skills;
  • self-motivation, flexibility, stamina and the ability to adapt;
  • confidence, enthusiasm and determination;
  • accuracy and attention to detail;
  • the resilience to accept criticism of your work;
  • commercial awareness with the ability to understand the target audience;
  • an interest in popular culture, new trends and styles;
  • good research skills;
  • administrative, IT and proofreading skills.

Art director (creatives)

Description Advertising art directors, often known as 'creatives', produce innovative ideas for the visual elements of advertising campaigns in all kinds of media, including: cinema and television; internet (digital/viral marketing); posters; press; radio. An art director usually works alongside a copywriter to form a 'creative team'. Traditionally, the copywriter produces the words to go with the visuals created by the art director. These roles are now becoming more blurred and it is likely that both will have an input into the visual and written content of the advertising campaign. The advertising art director works on the campaign from the outset and manages details about the client, product, target audience and required advertising message, which helps to shape the advertising campaign


  • working closely with the copywriter to generate creative ideas and concepts to fulfil the client's brief;
  • producing sketches or 'storyboards' (television) or 'roughs' or 'scamps' (print) to communicate ideas to the client;
  • gaining an understanding of the target audience and business that the advert is aimed at;
  • meeting with the creative director and account managers before presenting ideas to clients;
  • pitching ideas to clients;
  • briefing other members of the creative team;
  • commissioning photographers, artists or film-makers to work on projects;\
  • visiting and assessing locations for potential shoots;
  • working on location;
  • attending meetings at production houses and with other directors;
  • working in editing suites to oversee the finished product;
  • advising new creatives, reviewing their 'books' and managing new teams on placement with the agency.


  • the consistent ability to produce and communicate fresh ideas and visual concepts;
  • high levels of motivation and perseverance with a strong sense of belief in your ideas, plus the skills and confidence to express them;
  • excellent organisational skills with the ability to prioritise work and multi-task;
  • teamworking skills;
  • the ability to take rejection and criticism well and to be able to adapt ideas to clients' and colleagues' needs;
  • the capacity to deal with stress and work well under pressure in order to meet tight deadlines;
  • enthusiasm about advertising with a real desire to keep up to date with new developments in the media;
  • an integrated and creative approach to the media and how the media can be used in advertising;
  • high levels of IT skills in relevant art and design packages, such as Photoshop and Illustrator;
  • an understanding of the advertising process;
  • acute observation and an eye for detail.

Account planner (research & strategy)

Description Advertising account planners are responsible for creating the communication strategy for an advertising campaign. This includes targeting the right audience, as well as setting the tone and message of the campaign. As a planner you'll be responsible for writing the formal brief and providing the ideal environment for creative development. You'll combine market data, qualitative research and product knowledge within a brief to enable the creative team to produce innovative ideas that will reach consumers. You could be involved in working with a number of clients at the same time, and will need to identify the specific business needs for each one.


liaise with clients to identify specific business problems and develop ideas;

communicate with colleagues within the agency, such as creatives and account managers, in the process of developing a campaign;

gain a comprehensive context for advertising strategies by analysing a range of information in great detail, including demographics, socio-economics and the market for the client's product and market share;

commission research from outside organisations to inform advertising strategies, using both qualitative methods, such as focus groups and structured interviews, and quantitative methods, such as demographic profiling and questionnaires;

run research groups;

find an 'angle' on a specific product or service on which to base an advertising campaign;

research the product or service to be advertised, which may involve gaining technical or specific knowledge;

reconcile the differences between consumers' current perceptions of the brand and the way the client wishes the brand to be perceived;

meet the client to learn the background of the brand and advise on possible approaches to the target market;

provide the creative team with a clearly defined brief that contains concise information on the product, audience and strategy;

present conclusions and ideas to clients and other agency staff;

analyse and interpret customer response and sales data to evaluate the effectiveness of the campaign.


Account executive (client relations) Advertising account executives work within advertising or multi-service agencies, acting as a link between clients and the agency. They are responsible for the coordination of advertising campaigns and therefore communicating clearly to all those involved. They must understand their clients' needs and objectives and liaise closely with them throughout campaigns, often on a daily basis. They manage administrative and campaign work and ensure that advertising projects are completed on time and on budget. The role can involve handling multiple accounts and the hours can be long in a competitive environment. Advertising account executives usually report to an account manager.


What is the problem that this campaign is seeking to address?

That people, especially girls, care so much about likes because they think that the more likes they have the prettier they are. They think that what they post gives them recognition and forget about their inner beauty or beauty in real life.

How is the organisation trying to do this?

In the advertisement, they had girls take selfies without filter or editing and hang them out in an exhibition, having people writing notes and comments and they later found out that they don't have to feel confident just because of social media.

How are the various films part of a wider campaign?

They had a longer documentary continuing after their short advertisement. And on their website, they stated solutions for parents to be involved in this problem and how they can help solving it.


What is the problem that this campaign is seeking to address?

You have to be careful in what you say on social media as it might hurt others.

How is the organisation trying to do this?

By having men reading out the hurtful things being commented on twitter into others face. And video clipping the whole process and their live reaction.

How are the various films part of a wider campaign?

Copyright & Wrong

Fair Use -- the ability to use a small amount of someone’s creative work without permission, but only in certain ways

Cannot be used for commercial purposes. Can only be used in certain ways:

  • schoolwork & education
  • criticism or social commentary
  • news reporting
  • comedy or parody

Creative Commons Licenses -- You give people more freedom to copy and share your photo. People choose Creative Commons licenses because the licenses offer more opportunities for other people to use and share their work.

6 Types of Creative Common Licenses

If you created a picture, poem, or video and posted it online, what do you think you would do?

If I created a picture, poem, or video and posted it online, I would use a Creative Common license because I wouldn't have to give permission to every person who wanted to use it and my work would be protected.

Reflections & evaluation


The hashtag campaign #TellUsYourStory, is designed to raise awareness towards online/ cyber bullying. We came up with this campaign as we've noticed that teenage insecurities mainly come from online bullying. We also wanted to interact with the audiences and let them be the narrator throughout the video.

Account Planner

As an account planner for the group, my job was to find data and statistics for the video. I first designed a google form where I sent to students at South Island School to fill in, I've asked questions about their age, gender, what would they do if they were bullied and to #TellUsYourStory. The survey turned out really successful, with 45+ people answering and giving us various ideas and statistics. We then used the information found and put it in the advertisement. The information acted a really important role as it is proof to support our view points. I think that I've done well overall, however, I think that I can improve by not just sending the questionnaire to people in my year because 75% of the people whom answered were Y9 students.

Google Form:


Here is a table of the results I've collected through the google form. I've found out that most of the people answering were year9s (green hilighted, first column). 1/4 of the people at South Island believe that they were victims of cyber bullying, while 3/4 aren't victims. I've also found out that 99% of the people have smart phones, laptop, or any electronic device. About half of the people are likely to tell their parents if they were bullied. And only 8 people were able to share their story and be upfront of their experience.

Statistics Conclusion

In conclusion, I feel like South Island is a well protected place where bullying is seldom found. Which is probably why not much people told us their stories, or even taking cyber bullying seriously, because this problem isn't well recognized. Most of the people who were doing the survey are able to put their shoes into the bullied victims and were about to understand what were they feeling.

Desk research

According to i-SAFE foundation, more than half of adolescents and teens were bullied online or were engaged in online bullying, adding on to that, more than 1/3 received threats online, lastly, over half of the teens don't tell their parents when being cyber bullied.

Individual contributions

I appeared in the advertisement, took part/ brainstormed in the process of hashtag campaign, and gave bullying stories ideas.


  • Iconography -- a visual shothand
  • Advertisement -- a notice or announcement on different social medias
  • Media saturation -- when we are bombarded with adverts
  • Branding -- what a product represents (lifestyle, personality, identity, values, qualities, look)
  • Objectification -- the seeing and/ or treating a person, usually a woman, as an object. In the representation of women, this is often sexual objectification
  • Gender roles -- for women roles are often limited to housewife or sex object. For men, roles are often represented as the breadwinner and being served by women
  • Dismemberment -- cropping & fragmentation of the female body in media images which encourages objectification. Often this is the legs or parts of the torso.
  • Metrosexual -- A neologism (a made up word) to represent a changing economic trend in male shopping and representation dating from the 80s.
  • Advertising Regulation -- Advertising regulation refers to the laws and rules defining the ways in which products can be advertised in a particular region. Rules can define a wide number of different aspects, such as placement, timing, and content. In the United States, false advertising and health-related ads are regulated the most. Two of the most highly regulated forms of advertising are tobacco advertising and alcohol advertising. (Wikipedia)
  • Fair Use -- the ability to use a small amount of someone’s creative work without permission, but only in certain ways
  • Commercial purposes -- a use in connection with a business, usually for profit
  • Copyright -- a given law that protects a creator’s ownership of and control over the work he or she creates, requiring other people to get the creator’s permission before they copy, share, or perform that work
  • Creative commons -- a kind of copyright that makes it easy for people to copy, share, and build on someone’s creative work – as long as they give the creator credit for it
  • Public domain -- creative work that’s not protected by copyright and is therefore free for one to use however one wants
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