Reconstruction Begins! The effects Of the civil war to the south

Reconstruction was a time in history after the civil war, when the sothern states were in desperate need of repair. Reconstruction was necessary because the south was in ruins and wasn't part of the U.S due to sucession. At the end of the war, the south denied that they lost and didn't respect or follow the rules that they fought against.

Two presidential plans

Abraham Lincons plan for reconstruction included of every 1 out of 10 people would need to sign a contract saying that they were sorry and they shouldn't have seceded, but before he could take action on that plan, he was assassinated by a guy named John Boothe. A man named Andrew Johnson took over for Lincoln and made a new plan for reconstruction. For the south to be welcomed back into the U.S they would need to cancel its act of sucession, know that the government would not pay of its civil war debts, and ratify the 13th amendment to the constitution.

Slavery Ends!

A genral named Gordon Granger marched to Texas with a militia to forcefuly make southerners give up their slaves. A day called Juneteenth is a celebration of the day that the Emancipation Proclamation was passed and all slaves were free. During Juneteenth, people would play music and dance. It is supposed to be a celebration. After slaves were free, they had nothing to do, they couldn't get work, they couldn't afford food, and they had no shelter. To fix this problem, the constitution decided to make a thing called Freedmans Bureau. It was a funding organization that gave free slaves jobs, food and clothing, cared for the sick, old, and poor, made schools, and provided shelter.

New governor in a Texas.

President Johnson wanted to put a new governor in Texas. He chose Andrew J. Hamilton, a former state representative who had represented Texas in congress when the secession crisis started. Hamilton called for an election of a new constitution and almost all of the delegates arrived and supported sucession. Some were high-ranking officers who served in the confederate army, some were not pardoned by the president. No African Americans delegates arrived and few delegates supported African American rights. This convention was a terrible event for African Americans.

A new constitution!

In 1866 the delagates of the convention constructed a new constitution. The new constitution stated that all black people could not take office, serving on juries, or going against a white person in court. When the ex-confederates took control, they elected a new state government. They elected James W. Throkmorton as their constitutional convention leader. The ex-confederates refused to ratify the 13th and 14th amendments. The 13th amendment outlawed all slavery, and the 14th amendment, which protected the rights of African Americans. The ex-confederates also made black codes, laws that limited the rights of African Americans. These laws were very strict and breaking of these laws would mean Jal time.

Congress takes control!

Congress thought that president Johnsons plan for reconstruction was not working. They thought this because the new laws that were passed, didn't feel like they were starting reconstruction, but they were continuing slavery. But it wasn't just the congress who thought Johnsons plan for reconstruction was bad, there was some republicans who thought so too. These people were known as radical republicans, a republican that thought congress should direct reconstruction. The radical republicans took control in late 1866, when congressional elections gave them two thirds control in both houses.

Radical reconstruction begins!

After Johnson was removed from power, the congress took control of reconstruction. Their plan for reconstruction was harsher than lincons or Johnsons. Congress said that all governments in the south was illegal. In march 1867, the congress divided the south into 5 military districts. Texas and Louisiana made up the 5th district. Congress required many white southerners to take the ironclad oath. The oath said that the person did not serve or aid the confederate army.

Freedmen get to vote.

In 1867, a man named Genral Charles Griffin used the army and Freedmans Bureau to help African Americans to vote. Nearly 50,000 freedmen were registered. Some people didn't like the fact that Africans were voting, so those people made a colt. This colt was called the Ku Klux Klan, or the KKK for short. These people there threatened and hurt African Americans who were voting. The KKK also attacked carpetbaggers and scalawags. Carpetbaggers were people from the north who were moving to the south, and scalawags were people who supported reconstruction.

Reconstruction ends!

Reconstruction officially ended in 1870.

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