Unit 08 LO4 Developing technologies

Identify 3 ways in which the media has changed as a result of developing technologies.

Alerts and Notifications

  • Now the media on the internet enables notifications and subscriptions, the audience can now be notified with alerts that enable them be engaged in the content. This allows the web to come to us instead of the audience going to the web, this is called semantic web or web 3.0. An example would be on Twitter, if you follow someone then you are able to enable notifications on your phone if they were to tweet anything therefore having quick updates.

Dislike towards advertisements in media

  • The audience would be more sensitive to advertisement, as there are mainly a negative view on advertisements. If there are many advertisement that are easy to identify in the channel/program, the audience will most likely also question the legitimacy and quality of the program. Lots of audiences tend to be disturbed by advertisements on TV broadcasts and on video streaming sites such as YouTube, when viewing a video on YouTube pop-up ads may come up in the video and advertisements before the video may disrupt the audience and disturb their viewing experience therefore audiences generally do not like advertisements.

Easy Accessibility

  • This also makes media online portable, easy to find and easily accessible, rather than in the olden times where you would have to go out of your way to search for the information, media you would need. This would mean that it would take much longer to find the information or media needed. Another example would be YouTube again, which has a app which can be used on any smart phone/tablet and can be easily used to view videos as long as there is internet connection.

What does it mean when we talk about 'convergence' of the media?

  • Media convergence is the meeting of two or more different aspects of media. For example in films, they use both music from soundtracks as well as video footage for the actual film therefore converging both areas of media.
  • Technological convergence is the meeting of several technological. The smartphone would be the one of the biggest inventions of technological convergence as it features a calculator, camera, phone, sound recorder, video recorder, web browser etc. In the past, a separate device would be needed for each function.

Who has benefited from developments in technology and why?

  • The general public has greatly benefited from this advancement, as it has helped promote efficiency and connectivity around the world. As technology now has enabled the sharing of media content therefore able to send and receive information easily. An example of how the general public would be able to do this would be the use of social media such as Facebook or Twitter to share personal information and interests.
  • Companies and businesses has benefited from the development of technology because, as mentioned before, it has promoted connectivity and sharing. For example if a popular video game such as Call of Duty were to malfunction, players will be able to immediately send in bug reports and the game producers will be able to work on the malfunctions quickly and fix them.
  • On other platforms such as YouTube, content creators on the site or otherwise called 'YouTubers' will be able to receive feedback for their content, in functions such as the comment box has enabled viewers to participate in the creation of the content and give feedback of their likes and dislikes. The content creators will usually tend to encourage their audiences to leave their thoughts about their content or requests in the comment box for the reason of bettering their content to gain a larger viewership.
An example of a 'YouTuber' encouraging their audience to like and give feedback for their content
  • Foreign producers has created larger networks due to dubbing the foreign language into the local language or adding translated subtitles into the local language therefore creating a large audience pool. An example would be the rise in popularity of Korean dramas such as 'The Heirs', by adding subtitles in various different languages. On streaming sites dedicated to foreign dramas such as Viki, the producers of the series would sell the license to stream their series on the site, volunteers will then translate the series for them while gaining perks on the site in return.
An example of the large number of languages the drama is translated in.
The perks the volunteers receive depending on their contribution.
  • Independent artists and production houses may benefit greatly from this as audiences can easily access the material they have created and if it is entertaining then according to McCraken's Multiplier effect, the material will get shared and will become popular. A big company may come across this and decide to offer a contract with the artist or invest in the production house, this will benefit both parties as it means that they will further expand their audience pool and grow as an artist or production house.

What difficulties or challenges has the development of technology created? Who has been affected by these and why?

  • The feedback of the content has allowed the sharing and spreading of negative comments and feedback therefore discouraging the viewing of the material which can lead to the cancellation of a TV series. An example would be 'The Catch' a series produced by ABC where fans have been making speculations whether the series was only given the opportunity to still air on ABC because it was created by Shonda Rhimes, an American television producer, screenwriter and author, who is most well known for her contributions towards medical drama 'Grey's Anatomy' as the creator, head writer, executive producer, and show runner for the series.
Fans have also made comments that "The Catch" was a major "snoozefest" last season and that it "Should have been cancelled".
  • These developments has encouraged audience fragmentation which is the division of audience into smaller groups as a result of a variety of media outlets (channel fragmentation). This is due to the large usage of personal portable handheld devices such as laptops, phones and tablets.
  • This has negatively impacted cable TV shows due to the increased usage of legal and illegal streaming sites. Compared to the past the money into producing TV shows has increased as producers could get away with bad quality in analog TV but in digital TV, the content has to be in high definition as low quality content would not be sufficient to satisfy the audience and the audience will also be able to spot mistakes.
  • Negatively impacted print media such as magazines and newspapers therefore negatively impacting the workers and companies in that area of media. An example would be 'South China Morning Post', they have decided to partially move their operations to online news when the public have been starting to buy less of their print newspapers.
SCMP moving towards advertising their online news on different platforms

What is 'push and pull' viewing? What developing technology has caused a shift away from 'pushing' programmes at viewers to 'pulling' viewers towards programmes?

  • Push viewing would be to set a lot of ads, banners, emails to the audience and making the whatever they're trying to sell very prominent. As they are pushing the media towards the audience.
  • Pull viewing would be to try to get the audience to be interested in the product by offering good benefits, good price comparisons, consumer reviews etc. Drawing the audience into the media.
  • The new technology of being able to share information, such as reviews has enabled the shift to pulling viewers towards programs. An example would be if a viewer heard about the Netflix series Daredevil on social media and was interested in seeing the reviews, they could very easily search online and come across review websites like IMDB or Rotten Tomatoes to access that information.
A IMDB rating on Daredevil, that will draw in more audiences and encourage them to watch the show as it received a good rating.
  • Pushing viewing is not as used now as in the past there was not a large variations of channels that can be watched therefore the media was pushed at the audience, if the same was done now, then it would be too much for the audience to take in therefore the pulling method is used.

Choose 5 of the examples of the use of developing technologies by CNN & the BBC and investigate them in more depth


Describe the technology - What is it? How does it work? What does it do?

  • The BBC HD Channel is the improvement of the TV’s that enables the use broadcasting of high definition digital content and the creation of more channels that provide HD content.
  • Through HD it gives you exceptionally clear and crisp pictures with vivid colours and more detail than standard definition can provide.
  • To use the HD channel, it requires a high definition TV such as 4K TVs or Smart TVs, a high definition digital box which is used to receives a digital television transmission, and displays the digital signal onto an digital television set and a high definition broadcast which is used together to enable high definition viewing.
  • The signal sends binary codes through wiring into the television and through the codes they create an image on screen, the HD comes from a more compact code that creates more detailed images.
  • Audiences will also be able to catch-up on any missed HD programmes from these channels on BBC iPlayer.

How does this technology affect the producers of media content and their practices? (This may be content for broadcast or online content)

  • Producers of media content have to be more precise and careful to not make mistakes the audiences may be able to spot
  • Affects the media producers positively as the filming is digital therefore the footage is easier to edit and handle therefore their production process is made a lot easier and faster due to this
  • In comparison to this, in the past they would have to use film on a film reel to obtain footage but it has limitations such as increased film grains which moves away from the crisp images the HD gives and film/shutter speeds are slow.
  • Filming on film is also much more expensive as there are not many film manufacturers that produce film reels and HD is cheaper as it is digital therefore there is no need to purchase film reels, the only additional tools that are may benefit the production of film may be additional lens, SD cards and other accessories.
  • Using digital also means that it is easier to transfer the files onto a computer and an editing software, it is also easier to do special effects and transitions with the footage

How does this technology affect the audience for the media content and their experience?

  • The media is viewed at a higher definition of 720p, 1080p or 4K therefore audience will gain more pleasure from a more life like entertainment media. The sound of the media is also clearer and crisper as the signal is through a digital signal.
Comparison between the crispness of the different HD's and the standard definition in 480p.
  • The audience also experiences a wider frame from the analog TV set size of 4:3 to a digital TV set size of 16:9
The visual ratio differences between 4:3 and 16:9
  • It is more convenient for the audience to view HD material instead on needing to go to cinemas to do this as audiences can now view many different shows and series in HD in one sitting at home as it is all broadcasted in HD.


Describe the technology - What is it? How does it work? What does it do?

  • CNN's Tools & Extras includes the usage of apps on smartphones or tablets, desktop alerters and a CNN toolbar button.
  • The app works by installing the application on the smart phone/tablet and it is essentially the CNN website in a mobile app, it allows the user to see breaking news banner as the first thing that appears when the app is opened.
  • The desktop alerter needs to be downloaded onto a computer and will pop up notifications on the computer about breaking news headlines.
  • The CNN toolbar button is to be downloaded on the computer's browser as an extension, this enables the user to search news directly on CNN from Google.
An example of a CNN desktop alert

How does this technology affect the producers of media content and their practices? (This may be content for broadcast or online content)

  • From the apps and extras, it means that producers of media do not need to produce as much advertising for CNN as there are notifications for any updates or breaking stories that the audience will download themselves.
  • On the desktop alerter, the producers will need to make the headline or notification appealing or interesting to the audience to enable them to read more about it on the CNN site.
  • On the app, it means that producers of media will need to be more knowledgable on how to manage and update the app or will need to hire professionals to do this which will add to their costs.
  • On the app, it also enables audiences to watch live broadcasts on the device therefore media producers will need to make sure the stream on the phone is secure and will be able to withstand high traffics.
  • The toolbar will not need much interference from media producers as there are no needs to continuously update the extension as it is only used as a search engine.

How does this technology affect the audience for the media content and their experience?

  • The app will make CNN easier and quicker to access as it only requires a few clicks to access the app.
  • The notifications will also allow the app to be more interactive with the audience as they are able to click onto them read it and bookmark specific parts as well as save articles.
  • Having an app will also make CNN more official and trustworthy therefore this could encourage more audiences to use the app and subscribe to CNN
  • It allows audiences to be able to access information anywhere, making the information portable.
  • CNN has separate categories of news in which different people with different interests can find the news that they are looking for easily, for example sports, politics and local etc.


Describe the technology - What is it? How does it work? What does it do?

  • 3D is a motion picture that enhances the illusion of depth perception, it works as the brain morphs two images together allowing the audience to see in three dimensions, this is known as stereoscopic vision. To create the 3D effect, 3D films are captured using two lenses placed side by side.
An example of a 3D film camera with two lens side by side.
  • Content is filmed in 3D as it allows audiences to feel as if they are at the court watching the actual match
  • The Wimbledon Tennis Championships have been filmed in 3D as it is a high profile event that will appeal to many audiences and by filming it in 3D it will enhance the audience's viewing experience.

How does this technology affect the producers of media content and their practices? (This may be content for broadcast or online content)

  • BBC filmed Wimbledon as the first 3D tennis broadcast, for this media producers would have to plan some shots to create more a 3D effect when being viewed.
  • This also means that a different camera would need to be used to film in 3D, such as the IMAX 3D camera.
  • Although it is important for every live broadcast, more so for this, the producers need to make sure to make no mistakes otherwise the illusion of the 3D will not stand. For example if they accidentally cut to a not related shot then cut back to a related shot then it will make the audience aware of the cut therefore breaking that illusion.
  • The directors of photographies filming the event will need to be able to use the 3D camera and use specific shot techniques to enhance the 3D experience
  • Using 3D may mostly be a marketing tool to create a buzz about using fairly new technology such as 3D and to promote enhancing the audience's experience

How does this technology affect the audience for the media content and their experience?

  • It enhances the viewing quality and experience for the audience as it allows the audience to feel as if they are actually watching the match at the actual premisses
  • It will also allow the audience to escape into 3D media and be immersed into it for while and be able to fully enjoy the experience


Describe the technology - What is it? How does it work? What does it do?

  • The iPlayer allows audiences to watch programmes on demand online if they have missed watching any time slot's for their preferred TV show
  • As the license fee is in place and the majority of households pay the license fee, this means that there is no additional costs needed to use the iPlayer
  • The iPlayer is available online on www.bbc.co.uk/iplayer or alternatively on smart phones, tablets, game consoles and cable TV.
A screenshot of the iPlayer app

How does this technology affect the producers of media content and their practices? (This may be content for broadcast or online content)

  • The iPlayer generates an increased number of audiences therefore leaving more exposure to the producers
  • The iPlayer is a reasonable explanation for the license fee to be in place as the iPlayer service is free for anyone who lives in the UK.

How does this technology affect the audience for the media content and their experience?

  • The BBC iPlayer allows the audience to be able to watch their BBC programs anytime on different platforms such as on SmartTVs, smartphones, computers etc.
  • This means that the audiences does not have to wait for the show to come on TV and they can watch it directly online using BBC iPlayer.
  • This also means that as mentioned before, that Audience Fragmentation will occur therefore the audience will be more separated when watching programs on portable devices.
  • Audiences are able to download the shows onto their phone, laptop or tablet which allows the user to watch the show without internet connection however the downloaded show can only be kept on the device for 30 days and after the show has been viewed, it is only available for 1 more week after that.
  • Appeals to millennials as the younger generation prefer watching programmes on their portable laptops, phones or tables therefore the iPlayer is more appealing to that age group and it restores what ever views are lost from TV broadcasting.


Describe the technology - What is it? How does it work? What does it do?

  • BBC Red Button is service that allows the audience to interact with the media, it gives continuously gives the audiences news, information and entertainment through interactive audios, videos, text and pictures.
  • It also allows audiences to interact with pop-up advertisements to find out more about it
  • The red button allows the user to move easily between different genres of channels such as comedy, sport, news.

How does this technology affect the producers of media content and their practices? (This may be content for broadcast or online content)

  • They are able to connect with the audience and see their feedback and improve their performance according to the feedback received.
How the red button has developed because of the feedback

How does this technology affect the audience for the media content and their experience?

  • It allows audiences to access additional information such as the latest news, weather, lottery, sports scores etc. that could otherwise not be viewed as easily on TV in other countries.
  • There has been some negative impacts of this as some audiences may find the box prompting the audience to 'push the red button' disruptive and unnecessary as audiences like to watch their programmes without any disruptions and advertisements.
  • The advertisement boxes make the audience feel as though they have been lied to as it goes against BBC's objectives of providing entertainment and information without the use of commercials.



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