The European Enlightenment EUH 2001 - Austin Davis
Crafting and the art of working with one's hands became more accepted in society, and the following comments from an MIT professor highlight the importance of the prominent French Enlightenment philosopher Denis Diderot, who vigorously promoted those who used their hands to create.
The true importance of Diderot's publication was his dissension with the bias against manual labor: the idea that the mechanical arts were a source for universal knowledge, and just as important as science or the liberal arts.
The Enlightenment inspired many new studies to be born. One such example began when French naturalist Georges Cuvier was sent fossilized Mastodon teeth, and he went on to became the founder of paleontology. Flora were chronicled as well, such as Les Roses, a collection of rose paintings from Pierre Joseph Redoute. A worldwide search for trees and vegetation was ongoing, due to Frances decreasing forests. Acorns and oak leaves were sent back to France by André Michaux, who was dispatched to North America to search for useful trees, such as the Franklinia.
Goya even held courtly positions as painter under King Charles III and King Charles IV. When France invaded Spain, he managed to pledge his allegiance to Joseph Bonaparte, but strongly disagreed with many French policies. Appropriately, many of these arts were political in creation and spurred many ideas and much conversation, e.g. Los Caprichos' and The Disasters of War.