Down Syndrome: Down Syndrome is when an individual has an extra copy (partial or full) of the normal 21 chromosomes. It is when there is 47 chromosomes in a cell instead of 46. This happens by Nondisjunction. Basically that just means the chromosomes didn't separate correctly during the division. Down syndrome affects about 6,000 babies each year (or every 1 baby in about 700).
Klinefelter Syndrome: Klinefelter Syndrome is a condition where a male is born with an extra copy of a X chromosome. This most likely occurs when the genetic material in an egg splits and is not even, or the sperm splits unevenly. It is genetic and is not passed down through a family. Klinefelter Syndrome only affects males and causes the testosterone to not be produced enough during the birth and during puberty.
Turner Syndrome: is kinda like Klinefelter Syndrome but it occurs in females. It is when the female is born with an extra X chromosome. Turner syndrome is not inherited, and it happens very early in development. This syndrome affects 1 in 2,500 births of females worldwide every year.
Color Blindness: is when a person cant distinguish between some colors. Most colorblindness is inherited and it is present when the baby is born. Most of the time the victim cant see colors like red, green, or blue. There is no treatment for color blindness but i feel like someday there will something like glasses to help them see colors. It occurs to men and women both.