The Dred Scott Decision: Dred Scott was a slave when he traveled to Illinois and Minnesota with his master. He claimed that since he was in free territory, then he should be freed. Chief Justice Roger Taney disagreed and said that Dred Scott was still a slave since he was the property of his owner. Taney also ruled that slaves would never have American Citizenship. This case is referred to as the "Dred Scott Decision."
The Emancipation Proclamation: Abraham Lincoln gave an order called The Emancipation Proclamation. This declared that all slaves were free in the Confederate States. The problem was that the Union (i.e. Abraham Lincoln) had no power over the Confederate States. Even though, Lincoln demanded an end to slavery, this proclamation was not effective. a photograph of the Emancipation proclamaton
When the Civil War ended, Lincoln wanted to end slavery everywhere in the United States for good. Then he needed to make an amendment to the US Constitution. The 13th Amendment was approved by 27 out of 36 states and was ratified, or accepted, in 1865. It officially banned any form of slavery, and it canceled out any of the old laws that supported slavery. a photograph of a draft of
15th Amendment: Before 1870, African Americans were not allowed to vote in elections, even if they had never been slaves. The 15th Amendment made it illegal to deny another man the right to vote based on race. (It would still be several years before women gained this right, as a print from 1870 depicting of thethe 15th celebration after the adoption amendment
Plessy Vs. Ferguson (1896)- A case held at the supreme court about racial segregation. Upheld the segregation law saying it was ok as long as it was separate but equal. Segregate but the equal quality.
Brown Vs. the Board of Education (1954)- A case at the supreme court about the separation of black and white schools being segregated. Brown won.
The Montgomery Bus Boycott (1955)- When Rosa Parks refused to give up her seat to a white man she was arrested and fined. The day of her hearing all blacks boycotted riding on the public busses for 381 days. It was to change the laws of the busses.
Little Rock Nine (1957)- 9 black students who tried to attend the Little Rock Central High School, but the governor of Arkansas tried to prevent this by sending the national guard. This became the little rock crisis
Sit-Ins (1960)- A type of peaceful protest in which someone takes a place and does not leave until their demands are met at school.
Freedom Riders (1960)- Civil rights activists who rode interstate buses into the segregated southern United States in 1961 and following years in order to challenge the non-enforcement of the United States Supreme Court
James Meredith (1961)- A activist who became the first African American student at the University of Mississippi.
“I Have a Dream” speech (1963)- The biggest speech given in Washington D.C. given by MLK to a crowd of over 250,000 people.