Southern Africa Pages 377-396 Ashtyn harvey

Land forms & Bodies of Water

  1. Southern Africa is bordered by the Indian Ocean on the east and the Atlantic on the west.
  2. Many of the regions countries are very large.
  3. There are a total of 10 southernmost countries on the African continent.

Land forms

  1. Southern Africa is a very high region.
  2. There are a series of plateaus that range from 3,000 to 6,000 feet.
  3. The plateaus outer edges form steep slope called the Great Escarpment.

Bodies of Water

  1. The three major river systems are the Zambezi, Limpopo, and orange drain most of South Africa.
Which type of land form is common in Southern Africa?
Plateaus

Climate

Tropical Zone

  1. Northern Angola and northern Mozambique have a tropical wet-dry climate.
  2. Daily average temperatures range from upper 60s to upper 70s F. By the coast temperatures are much warmer.

Temperate Zones

  1. Most of Southern Africa is semiarid.
  2. Winter for South Africa are cool with frosts and sometimes freezing temperatures on the high plateaus.

Desert region

  1. Western South Africa, western Namibia, and much of Botswana are arid.
  2. In inland areas of the Nambia Desert, temperatures are hotter with summer highs from the upper 80s to more than 100 F.
Why are temperatures in Southern Africa's tropical countries generally not hot?
Because it is not as close to the equator.

Natural Resources

What natural resources are found in Southern Africa, and why are they important?
Platinum, Chromium, Gold, Diamonds, coal, iron ore, uranium, and copper. These are very important because they wouldn't be know worldwide if they didn't have these resources.

South Africa's Resources

  1. They have many diamonds to make cutting or grinding tools.
  2. This industry has attracted workers and investments from other countries that have helped South Africa's industries grow.

Energy resources

  1. Many Countries of South Africa mine and burn coal from their own deposits to produce most of their electric power.
  2. All the regions rivers are also another power source.

Minerals and Other resources

  1. One of Africa's richest countries in mineral resources is Namibia, they are important producers of tin, zinc, copper, gold, silver, and uranium.
  2. In countries outside of South Africa they have sold diamonds o pay for rebellions and other violent conflicts.

Wildlife

  1. Wildebeests, Lions, Zebras, Giraffes, and many other animals are found across the region.
How does deforestation affect the energy supply in the region?
Deforestation dries up dams which doesn't allow as much hydro-power.

Lesson 2 History of Southern Africa

Rise of the kingdoms

  1. Southern Africa's indigenous people have inhabited the region for thousands of years.

Great Zimbabwe

  1. Around A.D. 900, the Shona built a powerful and healthy kingdom what is now Zimbabwe, and Mozambique.
  2. Great Zimbabwe was the largest of many similar cities throughout the region.

The Mutapa Empire

  1. In the late 1400's the Shona conquered the region between the Zambezi and Limpopo rivers from Zambezi to the coast of Mozambique.
  2. When the Portuguese Arrived in the 1500's they took over the coastal trade.

Other Kingdoms

  1. In the early 1800's the Zulu leader Shaka United his people to form the Zulu Empire in what is now South Africa.
  2. A series of kingdoms rose and fell on the island of Madagascar from the 1600's to the 1800's.

European Colonies

  1. The first settlements were trading posts and supply stations at which ships could stop on their way to and from Asia

Clashes in South Africa

  1. Europeans set up trading posts but did not establish colonies during the 1600's till about the 1800's.

The Union Of South Africa

  1. Wars in Europe gave Britain control of the Cape Colony in the early 1800's.

Colonialism in Other Areas

  1. In Southern Africa Britain gained control over what is now Malawi, Zambia, Zimbabwe, ans Botswana.
Which European country claimed the most territory in Southern Africa in the 1800's?
Britain

Independence and equal rights

  1. Madagascar was the first country to gain independence in Southern Africa.

The end of Portuguese rule

  1. Portuguese military leaders overthrew Portugal's government and pulled the troops out of Africa.

The birth of Zimbabwe

  1. After granting Malawi ad Zambia independence, Britain prepared to free neighboring Zimbabwe, then called Southern Rhodesia.

Equal rights in South Africa

  1. After independence, the growth of South African's mining and other industries depended on the labor of black African's, who greatly outnumbered white's.
  2. The new government leaders began enacting laws that created a system called apartheid.
  3. By the 1970's apartheid-related events in South Africa had gained world attention.

Lesson 3 Life in Southern Africa

The People of the Region

  1. The population of South Africa is mostly black African.

Population Patterns

  1. South Africa's has the region's largest population about 49 million.
  2. Zambia is twice as big as Zimbabwe, Zimbabwe with a population of about 12 million, has only 2 million fewer people.
  3. Malawi is Southern Africa's most rural nation.

Ethnic and Culture Groups

  1. Southern Africa is home to many ethnic and culture groups who talk many different languages.
  2. South Africa's 9 million Zulu make up that country's largest ethnic group.
  3. Groups like the Chewa, Tsonga, Ambo, and San illistrate an important point about Southern Africa's history.

Religion and Languages

  1. South Africa's colonial past has also influenced its people's religious beliefs.
  2. South Africa's main language is Afrikaans, and there main religion is Christianity.
“What is the main religion practiced in Southern Africa?”
Christianity

Life in Southern Africaj

  1. Many rural people continue to follow traditional ways of life.

Urban Life

  1. The migration to the cites is because of the ob opportunities.

Urban Growth and Change

  1. The rapid growth of some cities has strained public utilities services such as trash collection, sewage treatment, and water distribution.
  2. Outside the central city are the white neighborhoods where about 20% of the city's population live.
  3. At least 12 languages are heard on city streets.

Family and Traditional life

  1. Rural villages are often small consisting of 20 or 30 houses.
  2. In many cultures, all the people in a village are related by blood or marriage to the village's headman or chief.
“Where in their countries do most Southern Africans live?”
Countryside, but many people are moving to cities because of job opportunities.

Southern Africa today

  1. Southern Africa's wealth of minerals wildlife and other resources may be key to success but they still face serious social, economic, and political challenges.

Health Issues

  1. Life expectancy in Southern Africa is very low, many people do not live beyond 50 to 55.

Disease

  1. Malaria, a tropical disease caused by mosquitoes, is a problem in many countries.
  2. Southern Africa has has the highest rate of infant death in the world.
  3. A major cause of death in children and adults is HIV/AIDS.

Progress and Growth

  1. Angola and Mozambique are still trying to rebuild their city's because of the civil war.
  2. Tourism at national parks has grown with the establishment of stable, democratic.

Help from other coutries

  1. The United States has used economic aid to strengthen democracy in Southern Africa.
  2. Other countries and international organizations have also made huge investments in the region.
“Why is life expectancy in Southern Africa so low?”
Because they have so many diseases and many infants die at birth.

Credits:

Created with images by DaFranzos - "lioness predator cat" • polettix - "pelican nature water" • Unsplash - "storm hurrican ocean" • Fæ - "Congo Balolo Mission missionary and village boys, Congo, ca. 1900-1910 (IMP-CSCNWW33-OS11-63)" • Retlaw Snellac Photography - "south africa - zulu reed dance ceremony" • Retlaw Snellac Photography - "south africa - zulu reed dance ceremony"

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