Chapter 11 By: Allan Chong

The Cell Cycle

The cell cycle is a sequence of events where a cell duplicates its DNA to form two daughter cells. It must grow, copy its DNA, and physically split into two daughter cells. Cells perform these tasks in an organized, predictable series of steps that make up the cell cycle.

Interphase

The Interphase, also called the resting phase, is the phase where the cell spends most of its life at. This is where the cell begins to copy its DNA to prepare for mitosis. The cell obtains nutrients and metabolizes them, grows, reads its DNA, and conducts other cell functions.

Prophase

The first stage of cell division, before metaphase, during which the chromosomes become visible as paired chromatids and the nuclear envelope disappears. The first prophase of meiosis includes the reduction division.

Metaphase

The second stage of cell division, between prophase and anaphase, during which the chromosomes become attached to the spindle fibers. A stage of mitosis in the eukaryotic cell cycle in which chromosomes are at their second-most condensed and coiled stage

Anaphase

The stage of mitotic cell division in which the chromosomes move away from one another to opposite poles of the spindle. The stage of mitosis after the metaphase when replicated chromosomes are split and the daughter chromatids are moved to opposite poles of the cell.

Telophase

The final phase of cell division, between anaphase and interphase, in which the chromatids or chromosomes move to opposite ends of the cell and two nuclei are formed. During telophase, the effects of prophase and prometaphase are reversed. Two daughter nuclei form in each daughter cell forming nuclear envelopes around each nucleus from components of the parent cell's nuclear envelope.

Telomeres

A telomere is a region of repetitive nucleotide sequences at each end of a chromosome, which protects the end of the chromosome from deterioration or from fusion with neighboring chromosomes.

Cancer

Cancer, also called malignancy, is an abnormal growth of cells. There are more than 100 types of cancer, including breast cancer, skin cancer, and lung cancer,. Symptoms vary depending on the type. Cancer treatment may include chemotherapy, radiation, or surgery. Has the potential to spread to different parts of the body.

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