Immigration: When individuals move from one area to another in order to find more resources. Toucans immigrating into a population would cause the population to grow and resources to become less available. Toucans might immigrate because they see the opportunity for more mates or better nesting sites in a different part of the rain forest.
Emigration: When individuals leave a population because there are limited resources and they can't be sustained in that area anymore. When individuals leave the population, obviously the size of the population decreases. Toucans might emigrate because they don't have enough fruit and nuts in the part of the forest where they live; therefore they have to go find more food sources.
Births: More toucans are born when there are more resources available to the population; the births will increase the population. More toucans might be born because there are a lot of nesting sites available and jaguar populations are down, so they aren't as vulnerable to being hunted.
Deaths: When more toucans die, there are more resources available because there is a smaller population to sustain. Toucans might die because other tropical birds out compete them for food and because of the scarce supply, they end up starving.
Population Growth: The graph above shows logistic growth. In the beginning, there is a slow growth and then it rapidly increases, finally topping off once it's reached its carrying capacity. The growth slows down once resources become limited. The toucan population would start off slow because there's not many individuals in it. Next it would begin to grow rapidly because there's a lot of resources and mates available in that area. Finally the population levels out because there's not as much food and space for the toucans so the population stops the exponential growth; the population's carrying capacity is the maximum toucans that can be sustained.
Density Dependent: These factors are affected by how big the population is in a certain and the interactions that occur between species. If the toucan population in a certain area is nearing its carrying capacity, there will be limited food supply because there are more toucans. There would be a huge shortage of fruit and nuts for other animals because the toucans have eaten all the resources. If there is a large number of toucans in a certain area, there will be a lot of competition. There are limited mates, food, nesting sites, etc. and every toucan wants to survive. Since there are more toucans, there are less resources thus making it essential to compete. If there are less birds, competing becomes much less common.
Density-Independent: These factors affect a population no matter how big it is. For example, toucans live in the big, tall trees of the rain forest, where they can hide from predators. If there's a huge storm that damages the treetops where they nest and live, they are going to have to live lower down in the forest. This makes them way more susceptible to being hunted, thus affecting the population. Another example would temperature. Toucans live in a hot, tropical environment. If there was a sudden temperature change that made the rain forests colder, toucans would have no option but to migrate or die. Since they are not birds made to migrate based on seasons, most would die in the effort.