Elements of design

The 8 elements of design

  • Colour
  • Line
  • Tone
  • Texture
  • Shape
  • Form
  • Type
  • Point


Colour can be

  • Primary, secondary and tertiary
  • Complementary, triadic, analagous, menochromantic
  • Warm and cool


Hue: Hue is a shade or colour

Primary colors: There are three primary colors. They are the hues yellow, blue and red. These three colors are the hues that in theory can be mixed to make all other colors

Secondary colors: By mixing two primary hues together you create a secondary color. There are three secondary colors. They are the hues of green, violet (purple) and orange. Orange from mixing red and yellow, violet (purple) from blue and red, and green from yellow and blue.

Tertiary colors: The third set of hues are known as tertiary or intermediate colors. These hues are made by mixing adjacent primary and secondary hues. The six tertiary or intermediate colors are yellow-green, blue-green, blue-violet, red-violet, red-orange, and yellow-orange.

Complementary: The complementary color scheme is made of two colors that are opposite each other on the color wheel. The complementary scheme is intrinsically high-contrast and draws maximum attention.

Triadic: The triadic color scheme uses three colors equally spaced around the color wheel. This scheme is popular among artists because it offers strong visual contrast while retaining balance, and color richness.

Analogous: Analogous colors are colors that are in close proximity to each other on the color wheel that share similar hue and saturation

Monochromatic: The monochromatic color scheme uses variations in lightness and saturation of a single color.

Warm: Warm hues or colours is phrase used to describe any color that is vivid or bold in nature. Warm colors are those that tend to advance in space and can be overwhelming. Examples of warm colors include red and orange (think exciting fire and volcanoes).

Cool: Cool hues or colours is a phrase used to describe any color that is calm or soothing in nature. Cool colors are not overpowering and tend to recede in space.

Colours can also be

  • Vibrant
  • Bright
  • Dull
  • Warm
  • Cool
  • Bold
  • Soft

Useful website


After write a sentence or paragraph to describe the artwork


The poster uses primary and secondary colours to contribute to the personality of the characters which appeals to a younger audience.


Line can be used to

  • Add structure to a composition
  • To frame information
  • And to divide information

Used considerately lines can add elegance to a composition, add hierarchy and to draw the eye to a specific point.

Line can also be

  1. Flowing
  2. Delicate
  3. Simple
  4. Bold
  5. Thick
  6. Thin
  7. Rough
  8. Fine
  9. Smooth
  10. Uneven
  11. Vertical
  12. Diagonal
  13. Horizontal
  14. Symmetrical
  15. Broken
  16. Organic
  17. Curvy
  18. Zig zag
  19. Bendy
  20. Skinny
  21. Long
  22. Straight
  23. Parallel
  24. Short
  25. Bold
  26. Geometric




Shape is an enclosed area maybe created by lines, colour, tone texture another elemental design.

Shape can also be

  1. Filled spaced
  2. Positive and negative space
  3. Organic or free-hand
  4. Geometrical
  5. Irregular
The combination of geometrical, negative and positive space, smooth, repetitive, circular, variation in size as well as transparency creates a feeling of adventure and the exploration of the unknown and the feeling of moment along with structured, curved, bold, horizontal lines create size and depth of the posters meaning of adventure.






A principle of design that indicates movement, created by the careful placement of repeated elements in a work of art to cause a visual tempo or beat.


A way of combining elements to add a feeling of equilibrium or stability to a work of art. Major types are symmetrical and asymmetrical.

Emphasis (contrast)

A way of combining elements or colours to stress the differences between those colours.


A principle of design that refers to the relationship of certain elements to the whole and to each other.


A way of combining elements by using a series of gradual changes in those elements. (large shapes to small shapes, dark hue to light hue, etc)


A way of combining similar elements in an artwork to accent their similarities (achieved through use of repetitions and subtle gradual changes)


Variety is achieved by using different shapes, sizes, and/or colors in a work of art.


A principle of design used to create the look and feeling of action and to guide the viewer’s eye throughout the work of art.


a patten that is continuous in certain place in an artwork


unity occurs when all of the elements of a piece combine to make a balanced, harmonious, complete whole artwork

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