New South Wales was firstly discovered by Captain Cook sailing the coastline in 1770, the settlement wasn't until 1788 when Authur Phillip led the first Fleet to settle the colony . Originally, the Fleet landed in Botany Bay, on Sydney's southern shores , however due to lack of suitable water and food sources, the settlement moved slightly north , in to what we call today Sydney Cove . The original settlement quickly spread up the parramatta and Hawkesbury rivers in the late 18th century,but failed for encompass land further west of the Blue Mountains, which were deemed impassable. In search of a new grazing and agriculture land , explorers finally passed the Great Diving Range and Blue Mountains in 1815
This led to the development of new agriculture towns like Bathurst. Further growth of inland New South Wales was experienced during the Gold Rush in the mid 19th century.