- The Modern Era rejected all religious and moral principles. So instead of being influenced by religion and morals, this era rejected them in order to achieve social progress.
- The artists of this period believed that religion and moral principles hindered their ability to be free and create. Although this era rejected religious and moral principles, it does not mean that they did not believe in God, although some artists were atheists.
- Although religion was not as prominent in this ear as it was in other eras, some artists, composers, and writers were still religious. One famous artist of the 20th Century is Andy Warhol. Warhol was considered to be a devout Catholic, even though he never expressed his faith in his works, which was always criticized by religious leaders and artists.
- Andy Warhol is famous for Pop Art. Pop Art was a major movement of the early 1960s. It rejected established expectations about art's aesthetic qualities and need for originality. Pop art also took its subject matter from sources like comic books and advertisements. Its use of commercial techniques eliminated emotional content implied b the artist's individual approach, which had been important to the previous generation of modern painters.
- Pop art forced people to reconsider art's place and purpose in the world.
- Since pop art took away art's aesthetically pleasing qualities and originality, critics say that although the pieces may be funny in a way, they are ultimately trivial. Pop art is a sign of deeper cultural and spiritual poverty, according to Gene Edward Veith Jr. in the "State of the Arts."
- Below are some of Andy Warhol's pieces.
- The Modern Era/20th Century artist and musicians reacted to the artistic styles and viewpoints of the eras that came before them in many ways. For the sake of this project, I will compare the Modern Era/20th Century to the Middle Ages that came before it.
Quick Facts: Middle Ages
- Began around the disintegration of the Roman Empire
- Time of migrations and wars
- The later Middle Ages (until about 1450) were a period of cultural growth
- Romaneque Churches and Monasteries (1000-1150) and Gothic Cathedrals (1150-1450) were constructed, towns grew, and universities were founded.
- Between 1096 and 1291 a series of wars happened by European Christians to recover Jerusalem from the Muslims.
- Sharp division of three main social classes: nobility, peasantry, and clergy
- All segments of society felt the powerful influence of the Roman Catholic church.
How is the Modern Era Different?
- Medieval lanscape and mind was at the center of musical life, as well as the cathedral. The Modern Era completely moved away from medieval characteristics.
- The Roman Catholic church was very prominent to the people during this time period, unlike the Modern Era/20th Century.
- One way to show devotion towards the Church during the Middle Ages was to build grand cathedrals. The Modern Era/20th Century moved away from showing devotion to religious figures, especially the Roman Catholic Church.
- Most music of this time period was vocal, unlike the Modern Era/20th Century, which utilizes a lot of instruments.
- For over 1,000 years, the music of the Roman Catholic church has been Gregorian chant, which consists of melody set to sacred Latin texts and sung without accompaniment. The chant is monophonic in texture. This is different from the Modern Era because Gregorian chant is no longer around, and the texture is now polyphonic.
- Below is a video of Gregorian chant. It is very different than music from the Modern Era.
So, What About the 21st Century?
The art, music, and literature of the Modern Era/20th Century laid the foundation for the 21st Century in many ways.
- The first years of the 21st century were marked by the rise of a global economy, Third World consumerism, mistrust in government, deepening global concern over terrorism and an increase in the power of private enterprise.
- In the 20th Century, mass media, telecommunications, and information technology made the world's knowledge more widely available, which laid the foundation for the 21st Century. The 21st Century built off of what the Modern Era/20th Century had started and made further advancements.
- In 1963, the touch-tone telephone was introduced (The Western Electric 1500 model). It featured 10 push buttons that replace the standard rotary dial. A 12-button model featuring the * and # keys came out soon afterward and replaces the 10-button model. By 2013, Wikipedia believes that about 80% of the world's population used mobile phones.