Cells are the basic unit of life. Cells are made up of many parts, each with an important role. Here they are.
In both plant and animal cells there are these ten organelles.
Cell Membrane - The cell membrane is like the gatekeeper of the cell. This is the organelle that allows what goes into the cell and what comes out of the cell. The cell membrane is also called the Phospholipid Bilayer. The cell membrane is made up of lipids and proteins.
Nucleus - The nucleus is like the control center of the cell. This organelle has codes to guide all the other organelles around. It is in charge of cell division and makes ribosomes.
Nucleolus - The nucleolus is located inside the nucleus. The nucleolus job is to transcribe rRNA and combine it with proteins to form incomplete ribosomes.
Cytoplasm - The cytoplasm is what holds all of the organelles together. It is a jellylike substance that covers all the whole cell’s spaces.
Ribosomes - The ribosomes are all over the cell. They are what make proteins. The ribosomes will come out of the nucleus, go to the rough ER, then get in a vesicle and go to the golgi apparatus.
Rough ER - The rough ER is a weblike organelle that surrounds the nucleus. Ribosomes can stick onto it to start making their proteins.
Smooth ER - The smooth ER is also a weblike organelle that surrounds the nucleus. But, unlike the rough ER, the smooth ER does NOT have ribosomes on its surface. It’s job is to make lipids and help remove molecules from the cell.
Vesicles - The vesicles are what surrounds the ribosomes when they are being transported. You will mostly find vesicles transporting ribosomes to the golgi apparatus.
Golgi Apparatus - The golgi apparatus is what packages the protein. When the ribosomes are made in the nucleus, they are transported to the rough ER where they start the proteins production. After that, a vesicle takes the ribosome over to the golgi apparatus where it packages that protein.
Mitochondria - The mitochondria is like the powerhouse of a cell. This is the organelle that makes the energy. To make its energy, it takes food molecules and turns those into its energy.
In plant cells there are these four organelles plus the above organelles.
Cell Wall - The cell wall is only in plant cells. This is the organelle that forms the cell. You may ask, does the cell wall also act like the cell membrane. The answer, is no because the cell wall is just outside the cell membrane. All plant cells still have a cell membrane.
Chlorophyll - This organelle is what makes food for plant. It also traps light for the plant.
Vacuole (only one) - The vacuole is like the storage area of a cell. People ask questions like don’t plant and animal cells have vacuoles? Well, yes indeed they do. But, plant cells only have one vacuole that takes up to as much as 90% of the cell.
Lysosome (some plant cells) - The lysosome is like the garbage dump. This is where all the unused or not able to operate organelles go to decompose.
In animal cells there are all of the above organelles plus these two
Lysosome (in all animal cells) - Lysosome, again? Wait, shouldn’t it be in both animal and plant cells? Yes, but no. The lysosome is only in some plant cells. Not all, some. In animal cells, however, they are guaranteed that each and every cell, has a lysosome.
Vacuole (more than one) - The vacuole in an animal cell is also the storage area. But instead of having one big vacuole, the animal cells have more than one vacuole but they are smaller..