notes from sell and spin

  • Edited to exaggerate the product.
  • It is a way to get people some conscious and motivate them to the consumer behavior.
  • Every American person is exposed to an average 3000 ads per day.
  • 450 billion USD spent annually for ads.
  • Right icons of an ad could have a big influence to the product.
  • Ads always have a real message or purpose of the product. Shifting the product.
  • Ads uses Images and Text to create the perfect ad.
  • Ads are everywhere, you can't escape them.
  • Coca cola's ad spending has led to global brand recognition.
  • Leo Burnett - created personalities as products. The audience connects with the icons/characters representing the product more than the product itself.
  • A product could be successful if the product is targeted to the right audience.
  • The sales received a staggering 3000% increase of consumption of Marlboro Cigarettes after they re branded and changed the targeted audience from Women to Men. Marlboro man.
  • Ford spent a lot of money to create a new car called the E-400, but it wasn't as successful. With new technology innovation features. Proving that money doesn't create success.
  • Suddenly there would be a greater need for advertising and people to know what the message is.
  • Iconography is a visual art that automatically represents a specific part of something worldwide that everyone knows. A visual shorthand that links you to something and signify something.
  • The printing press was the first major source of advertising. It was a great invention as all of a sudden you could spread all your messages at once in a small amount of time.
  • The advertising industry was too big in the past that people started tearing other people's ads to make theirs stand out more.


  • Branding - What a product represents (lifestyle, personality, identity, values, quantities, look)
  • Media Saturation - When we are bombarded with adverts... 3,000 a day according to the documentary and that was over 20 years ago!
  • Objectification - The seeing and/or treating a person, usually a woman, as an object. In the representation of women, this is often sexual objectification.
  • Gender Roles - For women roles are often limited to housewife or sex object. For men, roles are often represented as the breadwinner and being served by women.
  • Dismemberment - Cropping and Fragmentation of the female body in media images which encourages objectification. Often this is the legs or part of the torso.
  • Metro-sexual - A man who is attracted to women sexually, but who is also interested in fashion and his appearance. A neologism (made up word) to represent a changing economic trend in male shopping and representation dating from the 80s.
  • Spornosexual - A neologism (a made up word with sport +porn+metrosexual) The metrosexual has passed and is evolving. The spornosexual is a more extreme breed of man than his metro forebear. He is just as plucked, tanned, and moisturized, but leaner, buffer, more jacked and obsessed not just with "looking good" in the abstract, but with the actual physical proportions of his frame: the striation of his abs, the vascularity of his biceps, the definition of his calves.
  • Lumbersexual - A man who has adopted style traits typical of a traditional lumberjack, namely a beard, plaid shirt, and scruffy hair, substituting otherwise clean-cut and fashionable style choices.

Female representation advertising

  • Constructs a stereotype - ideal and standard female beauty.
  • Impacts self - esteem eating. Violence against women
  • An ideal women is unattainable.
  • Messages to woman are very negative.
  • Creates certain 'norms' that must be found represented of women and men
  • A wide smile is more typical to be found on women in advertising than men

male representation in advertising

  • Rise of male glamour model
  • Objectification (the objectification of women as sexual possessions.)
  • Construction of ideal male body
  • Focus on Abs, pecs, crotch
  • Male Gaze, Female Gaze - Looking at the opposite sex in a male/female point of view
  • Shows that men are more dominant than women
  • The use of black and white also emphasizes the contours of the body

Gender representation IN A&F ad

This visual advertisement by Abercrombie and Fitch represents the male subject as a very fit and strong visual effect. The use of black and white also emphasizes the contours of the body. The visual effect of the male subject with his trousers lowered also focuses on the V line, abs, pecs and biceps. The national identity is quite clear as in the background there is a slight sign of the American Flag, as A&F is an American company, but the pose of the subject looks as if he is acting cool and brave, this then shows the body contours more clearly. The way that they represent the subject looking at something distant makes it more mysterious and cool looking, and making the audience to focus more on the body. This advertisement also objectifies the male youth as very fit and good looking. This might create certain norms and stereotypes for the male attractive youths. The look of health and vitality forms the focus onto the body of the male. The shot of the camera is shot from below and shot up, to focus on the crotch area up to the pecs.

diversity in advertising

(Question) Look at this link : and reply on what you think this article suggests about diversity in advertising and in modern audiences.

(Answer): Until recent years, LGBT couples and children with unwanted disabilities have been more commonly featured on advertising. I think the reason they are just been featured recently is because in the past people wouldn't really be aware of same sex relationships and these sort of minor things that won't really affect them. But nowadays after different campaigns and world leaders agreeing with these terms and relationships people have started to become aware and support this issue, that is why more and more people are spreading the word with the use of advertising to help people understand more thoroughly. It has been said here that Millennial generation consumers have said that they don't think a brand is contemporary if it doesn't engage diversity in all of its forms. I think what this means is that to catch the attention of the product's consumers or viewers, you must include diversity of different ages, sexes and relationships.

Advertising standards and censorship

What are these advertising? They are advertising products of Maltesers chocolate and Craven A cigarettes.

What claims are being made for the products? It has made false claims about the affects of this products claiming that chocolate will make you slim, and cigarettes is healthy for your throat. In reality, chocolate will increase your weight and cigarettes may cause cancer. In the maltesers ad, it also suggests that women can become slim and have a thin waist by eating junk food. It also suggests that cigarettes is known for it's health care and healthy lifestyle and are medicines to sooth throats.

What image are they portraying? These advertisements are portraying images of women using the product after playing sports, proving that it is a good treat that is healthy for people, which causes positive affects and that the audience can benefit from using this product.

Could companies make the same claims for these products today? Why? Why not? Companies can't make the same claims for these products today because currently in the society people understand what products benefit your body and what products damages. People now are aware of what different products damage their bodies due to Social Media, news and also incidents in reality which affected different audiences. Technology and hospitals have also probably exposed the fact that smoking is damaging lungs and health systems.

Advertising Regulation Task

1. Identify the groups of people who appear to be most vulnerable in advertising. That is, who are the regulators trying to protect? I think the most vulnerable group of people in advertising would have to be children, because in advertising, children are used to create money for the group, without them being aware of the situation. This would hugely influence their learning as they would then have a disrupted future and will not be able to correctly define right and wrong. And also if ads include children doing bad things then it might influence other children when they watch TV. This would then set themselves as bad role models for the next generation.

2. Adverts for which products are most strictly regulated? Why do you think this is? I think clothing advertisements are the most strictly regulated because they have to recognize the gender roles and what clothing fits or meant to be worn by each gender. They would even make a kids section of clothing for the children, proving they have thought about the situation.

3. In a group, discuss whether you think adverts need to be regulated. What harm might they do (if any)? I think adverts have to be regulated as the consequences might be for certain people to feel objectified and criticized into what they have to do or wear, which then makes it unfair for them.

4. Create you own set of regulations - about 10 rules which you think should apply to advertisers.

1) No revealing clothing

2) Children must have the same rights to do the same things as others

3) Includes a variety of races

4) No objectified bodies

5) No limit in age of the subject

6) No negative stereotypes or objects that may harm or offend the audience

7) There is a similar number of males and females in the ad

8) There is no focus on parts of the male/female body

9) There is no metro sexual roles

10) The subject of the ad cannot be "perfect"

11) No misleading adverts that might portray a different meaning and not showing the use of the product

5. Look at these controversial ads from the clothing company Benetton. Would they pass your set of regulations? Would you ban them? Be prepared to explain why/why not. (

I would ban some of the adverts. This is because the advert with a tribe and an albino has racial differs, but it also included some emotions and hatred between the two races. But I wouldn't ban the other advert with racial differs because it enhances some actions which may help people and also includes no emotions, making it neutral. I would ban the ad of the hospital as sadness is the key emotion, it would bring a negative feeling to people and bringing the name of death to the audience may disgust them. Even though death is a sad feeling and there is nothing better than having your family by your side, bringing a shock to the audience could easily make them uncomfortable. I would ban the final ad of the blood clothes as it may give children mixed feelings about blood and make them feel disgusted or uncomfortable.

Who regulates advertisers?

In the UK, their advertisements are regulated by the ASA (Advertising standard authority). Their main 4 words are Legal, Honest, Decent, Truthful.

Exploring the work of the ASA:

1) BV ad.

There was a total of 683 complaints for the removal of this ad. The reason people complained about this ad was because they misheard the "booking" word in the advertisement as a swear word, and might think that it might influence the children watching to practice on the joke. As a result, this ad wasn't upheld by the ASA as they think it is a minor act and it was just the audience mishearing the purpose of the advert and the word, they also think this problem can be fixed easily.

2) Nicocigs Ltd ad.

There was a total of 145 complaints for the removal of this ad. The reason people complained about this ad was because the use of electronic cigarettes in the ad can be very appealing for children and can influence them. However, this ad wasn't upheld because the ASA reviewed that this ad wasn't scheduled around programming in the times of the day which children are awake to watch television. The ad's style was also not really appealing to them.

3) British Heart Foundation ad.

There was a total of 219 complaints for the removal of this ad. The ad was about a boy talking to his father who passed away in a heart attack in school. The main reason this ad was complained about was because people thought this ad would bring distress to adults and children. But this ad wasn't upheld by the ASA because it was found that it wasn't played during children programming times, and some people also judged it was unlikely to widespread distress to the audience.

4) Paypal ad.

There was a total of 464 complaints for the removal of this ad. This ad was about 2 children fearing that they're parents won't buy christmas presents for them. And the reason why this ad has been complained was because they thought it might bring the truth behind santa claus to the children. As a result Paypal changed their ad programming times to a time where children usually won't watch television, and ASA didn't uphold this ad.


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