Designing with Materials By: Charley Tzagournis

Element Cuts Vocabulary


A lack of equality or equivalence between parts or aspects of something.


The way in which the elements in visual arts are arranged to create a feeling of equilibrium in an artwork. The three types of balance are symmetry, asymmetry, and radial.


An artistic composition made of various materials (e.g., paper, cloth, or wood) glued on a surface.


The overall placement and organization of elements in a work of art, as well as the interrelationships between individual elements.

Elements of Design

Sensory components used to create and talk about works of art: Line, color, shape/form, texture, value, space.

Geometric Shape

Any shape or form having more mathematic than organic design. Geometric designs are typically made with straight lines or shapes from geometry.


An element of art that refers to the continuous marke made on a surface by a moving point. In visual art, a delineation or fracturing of space in color or black and white. Line qualities can vary in width, length, gesture, color, direction, etc.

Negative Space

Shapes or spaces that are or represent the area unoccupied by objects.

Positive Space

Shapes or spaces in an image that represent solid objects or forms.

Principles of Design

A design concept describingthe ways in which the elements of an image are arranged (ie. balance, contrast, dominance, emphasis, movement, repitition, rhythm, variatition, unity)


A two-dimensional area or plane that may be open or closed, free form or geometric. It can be found in nature or created by humans.


The area between, around, above, below, or contained within objects. Spaces are areas defined by the shapes and forms around them and within them, just as shapes and forms are defined by the space around and within them.


A balance of parts on opposite sides of a perceived midline, giving the appearance of equal visual weight.

Elements cut out Reflection

The balance in my project is pretty good both sides almost have the same amount of materials on each side. I did not use geometric shapes I used organic shapes like lighting bolts. My piece was symmetrical because it was balanced on each side. Principles in my piece are pattern, contrast and emphasis. In my piece both sides are the same pattern and I have contrast in the different sizes in my lighting bolts and my other things. Also I have emphasis on one of my pieces I put yellow polka dots and it pops out. Overall my craftsmanship was decent. I think I did a good job of cutting out my pieces, I struggled with gluing my lighting bolts because some of them are very small and I would over glue them. I used the rule of thirds in my piece to draw attention to all of my pieces. The color that I used was yellow because yellow is a popping color.

Printing Vocabulary

Contour-The outline of a shape.

Cross-hatching-A method of showing value by using parallel lines at different angles that get darker as they are drawn closer together.

Focal Point-The area in a work of art that an artist emphasizes.

Horizon Line-In an artwork, the line where the ground and sky appear to meet.

Monochromatic-A color scheme using only tints and shades of a single color.

Monoprint-A print made from a plate that can be used only once.

Neutrals-A word used for black, white, and tints and shades of gray. (Some artists use tints and shades of brown as neutrals.)

Plate-In printmaking, a piece of flat material, such as wood or metal, with a design on the surface. The plate is used to print the design.

Print-An artwork created by making an impression of a design.

Print making-The transference of an image from one surface (plate or block) to another (usually paper) with ink. The process of making one or more prints.

Relief Printing-A print made by covering a printing block with ink or paint and pressing paper onto the block. The areas or lines gouged out do not print. (Examples: woodcut, block print, linocut, styrofoam plate, etc.

Printmaking Reflection

I decided my imagery by thinking about animals and then I thought about turtles and after that I also decided to add some seaweed and coral into my design. No artists inspired me. My design is original because I designed it and decided what colors to use. I used the colors green, light blue and orange. I used light blue to represent water and green to represent the seaweed and turtles and orange to represent the coral. I would not make any changes. Color reduction because it allows you to use more than one color and print multiple times.

Mixed Media Vocabulary


A style of art that is not realistic. Unusual lines, colors, and shapes make the subject look unrealistic. It is often characterized by the use of geometric lines and shapes and bold, bright colors.


Quick drying, plastic polymer pigment used with water.


The process of adding or joining parts and/or visual elements together to create a painting, collage or sculpture (as opposed to subtractive).


The part of the picture plane that seems to be farthest from the viewer.


Part of a two-dimensional artwork that appears to be nearer the viewer or in the “front” of the image. Middle ground and background are the parts of the picture that appear to be farther and farthest away.


Also called chroma or saturation; refers to the brightness of a color (a color is full in intensity only when in its pure form and unmixed). Color intensity can be changed by adding black, white, gray or an opposite color on the color wheel.

Middle Ground

Area of a two-dimensional work of art between the foreground (closest to the front) and background (furthest receded).

Mixed Media

An artwork in which more than one type of art material is used.


Having no recognizable object or subject; also, nonrepresentational.


A transparent pigment used with water. Paintings done with this medium are known as watercolors.

Mixed Media Reflection

Describe your background, middleground, and foreground? In the background of my picture I have zentangling, red/purple acrylic paint and some string jell dots and lines. in my foreground I also have zentangling, red/purple acrylic paint and some string jell dots and lines. In my middleground I have a purple fish and some zentangling.

What was the hardest thing about the layering process, and what techniques did you use? The hardest part for me was applying the acrylic paint to my piece it was difficult to brush it on and the paint ran out quickly on the brush. Also string painting was a kinda difficult technique because it was hard to be accurate with the jell.

What did you learn about layering process (background, middleground, foreground)? I learned that you can add many layers and lots of details throughout your piece also I learned that I can apply tape to my piece to cover up my layer.

What do you wish you would have learned or understood about the process before you started your mixed media piece? I wish I would've been able to use acrylic paint better because it was hard to use.

If you did it over again what would you do differently? I would not use as much string jell and add more doodles.

Silk Painting

Silk Painting Glossary

Analogous Color

Colors that appear next to each other on the color wheel. Analagous colors have one hue in common. For example, blue, blue-green, and blue-violet all contain blue. Also called related colors.


The visual sensation dependent on the reflection or absorption of light from a given surface. An element of art made up of three distinct qualities: hue, intensity, and value.

Complementary Colors

Colors that contrast with one another. Complementary colors are opposite one another on the color wheel.

Cool Colors

The family of colors that includes greens, blues, and violets. Cool colors bring to mind cool things, places, and feelings.

Gutta Resist

Prevents dye from reaching the fabric; it resists the dye.

Intermediate Colors

Colors that are a mixture of a primary and a secondary color. Blue-green, red-orange, and red-violet are examples of intermediate colors.

Primary Colors

Colors that are mixed to make all other colors. The primary colors are red, yellow, and blue.

Secondary Color

A color made by mixing two primary colors. An equal mixture of primary colors. The secondary colors are green, violet, and orange.

Warm Colors

The family of colors that includes reds, yellows, and oranges. Warm colors bring to mind warm things, places, and feelings.

Silk Painting Reflection

What color scheme did you choose? Why? I used analogous colors because I liked how they looked and I think they all fitted well in my silk painting.

What part of the project did you excel in? What part of the project posed a challenge? I excelled in the painting but I struggled in the gutta. When I put down my gutta it wasn't very high so the paint would go over the gutta.

Batik Vocabulary


The purity of a color or its freedom from white or gray.

Color relationships

Also called color schemes or harmonies. The relationships of colors on the color wheel. Basic color schemes include monochromatic, analogous, and complementary

Color Wheel

A circular diagram of the spectrum used to show the relationships between the colors


The differences in elements, opposites.


The significance or importance given to an element of design.


Visual flow through the composition.


Repeated colors, lines, shapes, or textures in an artwork. Pattern is a principal of design. Also, a plan or model to be followed when making something.


Repetition refers to one object or shape repeated.


The repeating of one or several elements to create movement.


A color such as pink that is created by mixing a hue with white. Also, a light value of a color.


A tool used in creating batik patterns. (Batik is a wax resist decorative technique used on fabric.) They hold and dispense hot wax in such a way that the artist can control the pattern laid down by the wax with a great deal of precision.


The three color scheme on the color wheel based on a logical relationship.


The element of art that describes the lightness or darkness of a hue.

Batik Reflection

What was your color order?

My color scheme was warm colors so I started out with light yellows, golden yellow, light orange, orange, pink, red and then black.

What was the hardest thing about the batik process?

The hardest thing about the batik process was the waxing because it could be kind of difficult to wax inside the lines also sometimes it didn't go through sand I forgot to rewax my batik.

What did you learn about color mixing with your batik?

I learned that you can dye different colors to make other colors.

What do you wish you would have learned or understood about the process before you started your batik?

To always make sure that your wax goes through the batik.

If you did it over again what would you do differently?

I would be more careful on my waxing to make sure I was waxing more accurately.

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