waste Water treatment

It is a process used to convert wastewater which is no longer needed or suitable for its most recent use into an effluent that can be either returned to the water cycle with minimal environmental issues or reused.

National Water Policy 2012

It's main emphasis is to treat water as ECONOMIC GOOD which the ministry claims to promote its conservation and efficient use.

Features of National Water Policy:

  • To ensure access to a minimum quantity of potable water for essential health and hygiene to all citizens, available within easy reach of the household.
  • To curtail subsidy to agricultural electricity users.
  • To keep aside a portion of the river flow to meet the ecological needs and to ensure that the low and high flow releases correspond in time closely to the natural flow regime.
  • To give statutory powers to Water Users Associations to maintain the distribution system.
  • Project benefited families to bear part of the cost of resettlement & rehabilitation of project affected families.
  • To remove the large disparity between stipulations for water supply in urban areas and in rural areas.
  • To support a National Water Framework Law.
Major Provisions Under this policy are:
  1. Envisages to establish a standardized national information system with a network of data banks and data bases.
  2. Resource planning and recycling for providing maximum availability.
  3. To give importance to the impact of projects on human settlements and environment.
  4. Guidelines for the safety of storage dams and other water-related structures.
  5. Regulate exploitation of groundwater.
  6. Setting water allocation priorities in the following order: Drinking water, Irrigation, Hydropower, Navigation, Industrial and other uses.
  7. The water rates for surface water and ground water should be rationalized with due regard to the interests of small and marginal farmers.
waste water treatment Process
Phase Separation

Wastewater treatment is a process used to convert wastewater - which is water no longer needed or suitable for its most recent use - into an effluent that can be either returned to the water cycle with minimal environmental issues or reused.

  1. Sedimentation : Solids and non-polar liquids may be removed from wastewater by gravity when density differences are sufficient to overcome dispersion by turbulence. Gravity separation of solids is the primary treatment of sewage, where the unit process is called "primary settling tanks" or "primary sedimentation tanks". It is also widely used for the treatment of other wastewaters.
  2. Filtration : Colloidal suspensions of fine solids may be removed by filtration through fine physical barriers distinguished from coarser screens or sieves by the ability to remove particles smaller than the openings through which the water passes.
oxidation

Oxidation reduces the biochemical oxygen demand of wastewater, and may reduce the toxicity of some impurities. Secondary treatment converts some impurities to carbon dioxide, water, and bio-solids. Chemical oxidation is widely used for disinfection.

  1. Biochemical Oxidation : Secondary treatment by biochemical oxidation of dissolved and colloidal organic compounds is widely used in sewage treatment and is applicable to some agricultural and industrial waste waters. Biological oxidation will preferentially remove organic compounds useful as a food supply for the treatment ecosystem.
  2. Chemical Oxidation : Chemical oxidation may remove some persistent organic pollutants and concentrations remaining after biochemical oxidation. Disinfection by chemical oxidation kills bacteria and microbial pathogens by adding ozone, chlorine or hypochlorite to wastewater.
Polishing

Polishing refers to treatments made following the above methods. These treatments may also be used independently for some industrial wastewater. Chemical reduction or pH adjustment minimizes chemical reactivity of wastewater following chemical oxidation. Carbon filtering removes remaining contaminants and impurities by chemical absorption onto activated carbon. Filtration through sand (calcium carbonate) or fabric filters is the most common method used in municipal wastewater treatment.

Different Types of Water Treatment Plants:

  1. Sewage Treatment Plants
  2. Industrial Waste Water Treatment Plants
  3. Agricultural Waste Water Treatment Plants
  4. Leachate Treatment Plants

Submitted By :

  1. Tiirth Jhamb
  2. Manik Bhatia
Created By
tiirth jhamb
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